ni- 1pass. this prefix is the passive form for Class 3 verbal roots; past tense. Dakol di inggampa dan nibangngad mu hay kapkaphodan ke Bugan ya nan gawgawa. They had many gifts in a basket that they returned home with but the very best for Bugan was the duck. Nate moh apu Casilda ya maid moy oggan mangialih allaman nibayuh puhu. After Grandmother Casilda died, there was no one to bring crabs pounded with banana blossoms. Sim: mi-. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Verb affixes.) 2mod. functions to encode non-volitionality.
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ni-ahan (infl. of ahan) adjunct. expresses hope for a good outcome; to defer to someone; do something for the good of another; expressing that it is good that something bad did not happen. Iyam ni-ahan nan otak. At least hand me the machete. Ugge ni-ahan nate nan nuwang. At least the carabao did not die. Kon baliwan mu di ninomnom mun aton ta iunnud mu ni-ahan hi pinhod na. Will you change what you had decided to do, so that you will follow what he wants? Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 9.2.6 - Particles.)
ni-an (sp. var. of ne-an₁, sp. var. of ni)
adv. 1) something has not happened up to the present time; not yet. Maid ni-an di tatagu dih indai. There were no people yet a while ago. (sem. domains: 8.4.6 - Aspectual time, 184.108.40.206 - Markers of transition .) 2) before, preceding in time; eventually. Mahapul an umuya-uy ni-an ta ahi humagabi. The uya-uy-ceremony must be performed before one can perform the hagabi-ceremony. Inilak nan ohan iiba taku an kadangyan ni-an mu numbalin hi nawotwot. I know of one of our relatives who was once before a very rich man but turned out to be a poor man because of his gambling. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.) 3) still, refers to the continuation of an action or durative condition. Andani ni-an ta ahika ume. Wait for a while before you go. Mungngunu ni-an hitu. He still works here. Pinhod nan miha-ad ni-an hitu. He wants to stay here for awhile. (sem. domains: 8.4.6 - Aspectual time.)
ni-bo adjunct. an expression of disagreement or confrontation; what do I care; what of it; who are you to say that; expression of anger or used when daring another; questioning the correctness or appropriateness of an assertion. Tipe ni-bo ta eyak tumakut ke he-a? Who are you so that I should be afraid of you? Dahdi ka ni-bo? Who are you anyway?/Who do you think you are? Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11.1 - Disagree.)
ni-mo adjunct. expresses the idea of the minimum of what should be done or was done; at least. Alam ni-mo tun pechay. At least take this petchay. Wada ni-moy immali. At least someone came. Hay oha bo ya adi nadaman ena itikod an mummogmog hi manuk ni-mo. Another reason is that he cannot stop raising chickens. Hay ke kanak ya tibon takuh hilong hi bigat mu bokon ke ya hi linggu ni-mo. I suggest that we see him tomorrow night, but if not, at least on Sunday. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 9.2.6 - Particles.)
ni-yan advpred. just right; perfect. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Ni-ni-yan tuy pun-am-ampuyyon Bugan. How fitting to perfection did Bugan wear her tapis-skirt. Ni-ni-yan tuy panpannayona bo. Her dancing was also perfect. Evaluative.
ni (sp. var. ni-an) adv. first; before; not yet; still. <
> Alam ya- nan uwa ni-. Please get the knife first. Time. This is short form of ni-an
halab 1trans. to roast over flames; to position food, usually meat, over flames to cook it. Ihalab mu ke. You roast it. i‑/iN‑. 3D Move an object with a resulting change of state. Sim: pul’uk, hongba, dangpa₂. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Cooking methods.) 2pass. roasted food, usually meat. Pinhod kuy nihalab an dotag. I like roasted meat. mi-/ni-.
halla 1miss. 1.1trans. to miss a target. Adim ot ihalla. Don’t miss the target. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Weapon, shoot.) 1.2pass. for a target to be missed. Nihalla di namalattug na. His shots missed the target. mi-/ni-. 2pass. (fig) to be mistaken; to be wrong. Nihalla nan humang na. His answer was wrong. Ha-on di nihalla. I was the one who was mistaken. mi‑/ni‑. Sim: bahho. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Misunderstand.)
mi- pass. this prefix encodes the passive of Class 3 verbal roots; non-past tense. Hanadan bibiyo ya miha-ad da kanuh liyang, nah buddalan di ob-ob. These bibiyo or pinading accordingly stay or live in caves, near the springs. Da ke Magappid ya miha-ad da nah dommang nan boble. Magappid lived across the valley from their village. Wada da boy tetendaan hitun kay ad Cubao mu nangingina day migattang. There are stores like those in Cubao but what they sell is more expensive. Sim: ni-. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Verb affixes.)
‑um‑ 1TACR. this infix is a default affix for Class 2 verbal roots; non-past tense, punctiliar aspect; cross references the subject. Umali nah langtay ya inang-ang nah Lammooy an dimpanay takle nat iadi nanno umeh Pangka. He came to the bridge and he saw Lammooy who extended his arm preventing Pangka to pass. Sim: ‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Verb affixes.) 2TACR. when affixed to transitive verbs, this infix encodes non-past and punctiliar aspect; it cross-references subject and expresses partitive quantification of the undergoer object. Umidat ka nah kankannom an tinapay. Give me some of the food you are eating. Kumaan ka nah dotag ta ihaang mu. Slice some of that meat and cook it. Sim: umi-. 3proc. when affixed to Class 6 verbs, this infix encodes a process incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Inun-unud day imbagan Pablo ot ahi pumhod nan unga. They did and the child got well. Wumotwot di tugal. Gambling makes a person become poor. 4TACR. this infix derives an intransitive process verb from a noun or adjective; it encodes incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Hay humagabi ya hay kadangyan. The man who performs the hagabi-ceremony must be rich. Deket maid di dayakkot ya adi dumanum nan ikail. If there is no glutinous rice to mix in, the preparation will not produce any juice at all. 5TACR. this infix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar or inceptive aspect and cross-references subject. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Matibon mundogo, ot ibagana nadah aammod nan umayag dah mamakko. She was not evidently in good health so he advised the parents to call for a mamakko-shaman. Deket e mangan, umukmun ni-an hi mahampot an tubun di holok. Before it eats, it first swallows coarse grass.
anhan (sp. var. ahan) adjunct. 1an intensifying polite adjunct; please, sorry. [The word is generally used in a polite request or as a polite emphasis, but may also be used sarcastically. It is used intentionally to evoke particular feelings in the hearer; the context disambiguates the feelings that the speaker intends to evoke.] Toan ten makulug, mu deket makulug, ikabing mu anhan tun tugun ku. Whether or not this is true, I don’t know, but if it is, then, heed my advice. Interpersonal. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Persuade.) 2to emphasize, related to degree or uniqueness. Hinae anhan nan em ipatipatibo? Is it only that which you are showing off? Makulug anhan nan kinalik. What I said is really true. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.) 3first thing; a priority. Pa-anhanom an aton ni-an nan kinalik ta ahim aton di udum an ngunum. Make what I told you the first thing you do before your other work. pa‑ ‑an. comp. kay-ahan der. ipaanhan der. mangipaanhan infl. paanhanon
atu 1sta. to be tired; fatigued. Adi maatu nan nuwang. The carabao does not tire. Naka-atuwak an pinhod kun mun-iyatu ni-an. I am so tired, I want to rest for a while. Indani ya naatu da nin an nundopap. Later on, maybe they were tired from grappling. ma‑/na‑ . 6A Physiological Process - State. Sim: bol’e. (sem. domains: 2.4.4 - Tired.) 2proc. refers to the process of becoming tired; tiring. Umatuy umeh baleyu. Going to your house is tiring. Adika mun-atu. Don’t tire yourself. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑.
bahaba intrans. to eat following the drinking of liquor. Humgop ka ni-an ta munbahaba ta. Come in for a while and let’s eat. (Implied that they came from a ritual.) Imbahaba da on kinlum. They butchered a small pig to eat (after the ritual). muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑. 1E Physiological functions. (sem. domains: 5.2.2 - Eat, 18.104.22.168 - Custom.)
ballu comm. 1immature rice; roasted, pounded and eaten. Makahhong-o nan ballu. The ballu is so delicious. Sim: intuppi. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2any immature plant; unripe fruit. Adim ni-an alan nan mangga te ballu. Do not get the mango fruit because it is immature. (sem. domains: 1.5.6 - Growth of plants.)
bognat sta. to experience a relapse after sickness. Adika e mungngunu te mabognat ka man. Do not go to work because you might have a relapse. Adika ni-an mumbalbal te mabognat ka te kattungom. Do not wash clothes yet because you just gave birth and you will have a relapse. ma‑. Sim: gid’u, makihal. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick.)
boh-ol 1comm. to feel displeasure or indignation; anger. Adika ni-an mih-up inggana mabaoy boh-ol na. Don’t go near him yet until his anger cools off. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Angry.) 2trans. to be angry and scold. Boh-olan daka ke ya adika humumang. If they scold you, do not answer back. Mumboh-ol hi amana yaden limmah-un. His father was scolding yet he went out. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: bungotan. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Rebuke.) 3intrans. feeling or showing anger; to be angry. Adika bumoh-ol te langlangkak ya abu. Don’t be angry because I was only teasing. Bimmoh-ol mo kanuh Pangka ya ho- mundopap da. So, according to Pangka, he got mad and er...they grappled. Bimmoh-ol hi ama ot pumboh-olan dakami. My father was so angry that he scolded us. Ek ot humangon mu uggek te tinibok an bimmoh-ol I was about to answer him back but I didn’t because I saw that he was angry. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2C, Emotion and sensation. infl. bimmoh-ol
bong-o intrans. to select rice seeds for next planting season; this is done during harvesting. Hi Mattima di mamong-o hin mun-ani da. Matima will be the one to gather rice grains for seedlings during the harvest. Adi kayu ni-an mun-anih na te ugge nabong-o. Don’t harvest there yet because the good grain has not been selected and bundled. maN‑/naN‑, ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.)
bongbong trans. to build a dam; to block water. Bongbongom ni-an nan danum nah payo. You block the water coming out of the field. Ibongbong mu nan luta nah loba. Use the soil/dirt on the slope in damming the water. Pumbongbong da na napa-in banong. They are blocking the water flowing from the destroyed ricefield dike. Bumongbong kah pangiha-adan hi liting. Dam a spot for gathering water. Adi mabongbong te nal-ot nan danum. It cannot be dammed because the current is too strong. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, puN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. 5F Adjacency/Adjoining. (sem. domains: 6.6.7 - Working with water.) infl. mamongbong
bud’al 1nom. an exit or opening to go out. Maid di buddalan nan gando. The rat has no exit. ‑an. Sim: buddu, lah-un. 2intrans. to exit; come out; go out. Bumudal kayu ni-an ta liniyan mi tun bale. Go out for a while and we will clean the house. Hinumgop kami nah balen ongal ya ekami bumudal ya hinnatkon di bimmudalan mi. We entered the big house but when we came out we came out from a different exit. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52.1 - Move out.) 3trans. to bring something out. Ibudal mu nan it-ittalum. You bring out what you are hiding. Adiyu ibudal am-in hanan makan te dakol da pay di ugge nangan. Do not bring out all the food because many did not eat yet. Dahdiy nangibudal bo tuh intaluk an otak. Who brought out again this bolo which I had hidden. i‑/iN‑, mangi‑/nangi‑. 3E Move an object directionally. ph. v. bumudal nah hospital