ni-an (sp. var. of ne-an₁, sp. var. of ni)
adv. 1) something has not happened up to the present time; not yet. Maid ni-an di tatagu dih indai. There were no people yet a while ago. (sem. domains: 8.4.6 - Aspectual time, 188.8.131.52 - Markers of transition .) 2) before, preceding in time; eventually. Mahapul an umuya-uy ni-an ta ahi humagabi. The uya-uy-ceremony must be performed before one can perform the hagabi-ceremony. Inilak nan ohan iiba taku an kadangyan ni-an mu numbalin hi nawotwot. I know of one of our relatives who was once before a very rich man but turned out to be a poor man because of his gambling. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.) 3) still, refers to the continuation of an action or durative condition. Andani ni-an ta ahika ume. Wait for a while before you go. Mungngunu ni-an hitu. He still works here. Pinhod nan miha-ad ni-an hitu. He wants to stay here for awhile. (sem. domains: 8.4.6 - Aspectual time.)
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ni (sp. var. ni-an) adv. first; before; not yet; still. <
> Alam ya- nan uwa ni-. Please get the knife first. Time. This is short form of ni-an
‑um‑ 1TACR. this infix is a default affix for Class 2 verbal roots; non-past tense, punctiliar aspect; cross references the subject. Umali nah langtay ya inang-ang nah Lammooy an dimpanay takle nat iadi nanno umeh Pangka. He came to the bridge and he saw Lammooy who extended his arm preventing Pangka to pass. Sim: ‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Verb affixes.) 2TACR. when affixed to transitive verbs, this infix encodes non-past and punctiliar aspect; it cross-references subject and expresses partitive quantification of the undergoer object. Umidat ka nah kankannom an tinapay. Give me some of the food you are eating. Kumaan ka nah dotag ta ihaang mu. Slice some of that meat and cook it. Sim: umi-. 3proc. when affixed to Class 6 verbs, this infix encodes a process incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Inun-unud day imbagan Pablo ot ahi pumhod nan unga. They did and the child got well. Wumotwot di tugal. Gambling makes a person become poor. 4TACR. this infix derives an intransitive process verb from a noun or adjective; it encodes incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Hay humagabi ya hay kadangyan. The man who performs the hagabi-ceremony must be rich. Deket maid di dayakkot ya adi dumanum nan ikail. If there is no glutinous rice to mix in, the preparation will not produce any juice at all. 5TACR. this infix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar or inceptive aspect and cross-references subject. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Matibon mundogo, ot ibagana nadah aammod nan umayag dah mamakko. She was not evidently in good health so he advised the parents to call for a mamakko-shaman. Deket e mangan, umukmun ni-an hi mahampot an tubun di holok. Before it eats, it first swallows coarse grass.
anhan (sp. var. ahan) adjunct. 1an intensifying polite adjunct; please, sorry. [The word is generally used in a polite request or as a polite emphasis, but may also be used sarcastically. It is used intentionally to evoke particular feelings in the hearer; the context disambiguates the feelings that the speaker intends to evoke.] Toan ten makulug, mu deket makulug, ikabing mu anhan tun tugun ku. Whether or not this is true, I don’t know, but if it is, then, heed my advice. Interpersonal. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Persuade.) 2to emphasize, related to degree or uniqueness. Hinae anhan nan em ipatipatibo? Is it only that which you are showing off? Makulug anhan nan kinalik. What I said is really true. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.) 3first thing; a priority. Pa-anhanom an aton ni-an nan kinalik ta ahim aton di udum an ngunum. Make what I told you the first thing you do before your other work. pa‑ ‑an. comp. kay-ahan der. ipaanhan der. mangipaanhan infl. paanhanon
atu 1sta. to be tired; fatigued. Adi maatu nan nuwang. The carabao does not tire. Naka-atuwak an pinhod kun mun-iyatu ni-an. I am so tired, I want to rest for a while. Indani ya naatu da nin an nundopap. Later on, maybe they were tired from grappling. ma‑/na‑ . 6A Physiological Process - State. Sim: bol’e. (sem. domains: 2.4.4 - Tired.) 2proc. refers to the process of becoming tired; tiring. Umatuy umeh baleyu. Going to your house is tiring. Adika mun-atu. Don’t tire yourself. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑.
bahaba intrans. to eat following the drinking of liquor. Humgop ka ni-an ta munbahaba ta. Come in for a while and let’s eat. (Implied that they came from a ritual.) Imbahaba da on kinlum. They butchered a small pig to eat (after the ritual). muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑. 1E Physiological functions. (sem. domains: 5.2.2 - Eat, 18.104.22.168 - Custom.)
ballu comm. 1immature rice; roasted, pounded and eaten. Makahhong-o nan ballu. The ballu is so delicious. Sim: intuppi. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2any immature plant; unripe fruit. Adim ni-an alan nan mangga te ballu. Do not get the mango fruit because it is immature. (sem. domains: 1.5.6 - Growth of plants.)
bognat sta. to experience a relapse after sickness. Adika e mungngunu te mabognat ka man. Do not go to work because you might have a relapse. Adika ni-an mumbalbal te mabognat ka te kattungom. Do not wash clothes yet because you just gave birth and you will have a relapse. ma‑. Sim: gid’u, makihal. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick.)
boh-ol 1comm. to feel displeasure or indignation; anger. Adika ni-an mih-up inggana mabaoy boh-ol na. Don’t go near him yet until his anger cools off. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Angry.) 2trans. to be angry and scold. Boh-olan daka ke ya adika humumang. If they scold you, do not answer back. Mumboh-ol hi amana yaden limmah-un. His father was scolding yet he went out. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: bungotan. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Rebuke.) 3intrans. feeling or showing anger; to be angry. Adika bumoh-ol te langlangkak ya abu. Don’t be angry because I was only teasing. Bimmoh-ol mo kanuh Pangka ya ho- mundopap da. So, according to Pangka, he got mad and er...they grappled. Bimmoh-ol hi ama ot pumboh-olan dakami. My father was so angry that he scolded us. Ek ot humangon mu uggek te tinibok an bimmoh-ol I was about to answer him back but I didn’t because I saw that he was angry. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2C, Emotion and sensation. infl. bimmoh-ol
bong-o intrans. to select rice seeds for next planting season; this is done during harvesting. Hi Mattima di mamong-o hin mun-ani da. Matima will be the one to gather rice grains for seedlings during the harvest. Adi kayu ni-an mun-anih na te ugge nabong-o. Don’t harvest there yet because the good grain has not been selected and bundled. maN‑/naN‑, ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.)
bongbong trans. to build a dam; to block water. Bongbongom ni-an nan danum nah payo. You block the water coming out of the field. Ibongbong mu nan luta nah loba. Use the soil/dirt on the slope in damming the water. Pumbongbong da na napa-in banong. They are blocking the water flowing from the destroyed ricefield dike. Bumongbong kah pangiha-adan hi liting. Dam a spot for gathering water. Adi mabongbong te nal-ot nan danum. It cannot be dammed because the current is too strong. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, puN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. 5F Adjacency/Adjoining. (sem. domains: 6.6.7 - Working with water.) infl. mamongbong
bud’al 1nom. an exit or opening to go out. Maid di buddalan nan gando. The rat has no exit. ‑an. Sim: buddu, lah-un. 2intrans. to exit; come out; go out. Bumudal kayu ni-an ta liniyan mi tun bale. Go out for a while and we will clean the house. Hinumgop kami nah balen ongal ya ekami bumudal ya hinnatkon di bimmudalan mi. We entered the big house but when we came out we came out from a different exit. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52.1 - Move out.) 3trans. to bring something out. Ibudal mu nan it-ittalum. You bring out what you are hiding. Adiyu ibudal am-in hanan makan te dakol da pay di ugge nangan. Do not bring out all the food because many did not eat yet. Dahdiy nangibudal bo tuh intaluk an otak. Who brought out again this bolo which I had hidden. i‑/iN‑, mangi‑/nangi‑. 3E Move an object directionally. ph. v. bumudal nah hospital
bulyaggo₂ 1comm. a child’s game using a top to split an opponent’s top without spinning the top but by using it as an ax. Pini-ang da nan bawwot Jose nah bulyaggo. They split the top of Jose in the bulyaggo-game. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) 2intrans. to play the spinning-top game. Mumbubulyaggo da nadan u-unga. The children are trying to split each other’s tops. muN‑/nuN‑ CV(C)‑.
CV intensifier. the reduplication of the first syllable of a verbal root is the form of a morpheme that encodes intensity; very. Mihmihdi nah munhihilong ya nah kakaiw an dakol di hapang nan mahdol di tubuna. It stays in very dark places or in trees with thick, leafy branches. Anakkayang peman hi Bugan tipet eka humahallaman an ume yaden maid ni-an di lugan. Wow (how excited you must be) Bugan, why do you go very early when there are no jeepneys yet. Gadgadam nan bila te dakol di lamut na ya napipitok. Scrape the tubers because they have many roots and they are very muddy.
CV- num. this reduplicant form functions to pluralize a noun referent. Deket kanan nan tagu di humagabi, ipainila na ni-an hi iibana. When a man says that he will perform the hagabi-ceremony, he notifies his relatives beforehand. Mihmihdi nah munhihilong ya nah kakaiw an dakol di hapang nan mahdol di tubuna. It stays in dark places or in trees with thick, leafy branches. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Noun affixes.)
dagga v. to go beyond a given place. Deket ume kah balen da ya madagga ka ni-an hi Shrine ta eka mangala nah lappaw ta waday ahi ta idecorate nah simbaan. If you are going to their house, go beyond to the Shrine first to get sunflowers so we will have something to decorate the church. ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Move past, over, through.) Daggana
damuna advpred. 1to delimit time by expressing the simultaneity of two different events; meantime; meanwhile. Um-umbun taku ni-an ta damunay kalutuwan nan kanon. Let us sit while the food is being cooked. Idadaan mu nan panganan ta damunay datngan da. Set the table, while waiting for them to arrive. Time. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168.2 - At the same time.) 2to delimit an amount; enough or more than enough; may relate to quantifying space, amount, accomplishment. Damunay ginastum yaden uggem pay ginibbuy adal mu. You spent much yet you still haven’t finished your studies. Damunay nginunum. You have accomplished more than enough. Damunay ginabutam. You cleared enough, a wide space. (sem. domains: 8.1.7 - Enough.)
dangpa₁ 1trans. to be unsuspecting of someone or something. Dangpahom nan at-attona ot maki-e kan hiya?. You are unsuspecting about what he does and yet you went with him? ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Stupid.) 2intrans. naive; innocently childlike. He-a ken manangpa ni-an ya op-opya ka. As for you, you are still childlike so you should keep quiet. Dita ke boppon makannangpa ya adita oggan maki-kie hanadah nakannomnoman te talatalammon dita. Those of us who are very naive should not be going around with those who are clever because they will trick us. maN‑, maka‑.
dogo 1sickness. 1.1intrans. to be sick; to experience disease or ill health. Mundogo hi inana kinali ugge immali. Her mother is sick that’s why she did not come. Dehtu mo ahan an mundogowak. There, now I am really sick. Athidi bon mundogo ke ya adi pakaihwang hi adol na te maid moy innunan mumbaki. Also, if he gets sick then no one will do the pagan prayer for him. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: ganna, bon-ag. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick, 2.5.2 - Disease.) 1.2intrans. to become sick at a point in time. Dumgo ka hin adika mangan. You will get sick if you do not eat. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2to become sick. 2.1trans. the cause of sickness is prominent. Adim taynan ni-an tun golang te idgo na ke ya nganne. Don’t leave the baby that long for he might get sick and what will I do? Inidgona nan ena nundanullukan. He got sick because he went walking in the rain. i‑. 2.2trans. to feel unwell. Waday dogdoghona. He does not feel well. ‑on/‑in‑. 3comm. a condition of poor health. Uggena inilay gapun di dogo. He doesn’t know the reason for illness. Hana ken tagun inipkod di bibiyo ya mundogoh dogon adi maagahan di doktor. And a person whose life is held by a bibiyo gets sick with an illness that cannot be cured by a doctor’s prescription. infl. mundogo
eka pers. you, singular; the form is a compound of the marker e and the 2nd person, singular personal pronoun, a member of Set 2; the form is preposed before the verb, encodes the subject grammatical relation and is cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Tipet eka humahallaman an ume yaden maid ni-an di lugan. Why do you go so very early when there are no rides/jeepneys yet. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)