Search results for "no"

‑an₂ TACR. this suffix is a default affix for Class 5 verbal roots; it encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross references an object with a site semantic role. Indani ya- ena kanu iuduk onno mungkulih Lammooy an haniyana. Later on, according to him, he tried to pass under the extended arm yet Lammooy blocked him. Ya adim kal-iwan an hay importanten punggastuwam ya nadan liblum And don’t forget that the most important thing is to spend money on the books Kalubam hi daun ya ihamad mu ta maid hunggop hi dibdib. Cover the jar tightly with banana leaves so that no air enters. Adugan yu nan ihda te ibtik nan puha. Guard the viand because the cat will run off with it. Wada on tagun nanibon hiya ot baddanganan ianamut nunhituwan mid Longnga. There was a person who saw him and helped him to return to where we were staying in Longnga. Sim: ‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

‑on TACR. 1this suffix is a default affix for Class 5 verbal roots; encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross-references the patient-object. Pinhod mun inilaon di Manila. Do you want to know about Manila? Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Nu mabalin ya hay mo informative books di bidbidom. You should already prefer to read informative books. Sim: ‑in‑. (sem. domains: 9 - Grammar.) 2this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross-references an object that is either a path or destination. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. Nundodollop dat eda hogpon hidiyen kuwantel di Ippangyol. They became allies to enter the camp of the Spanish. 3this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and cross-references an object that is an experiencer. 4this suffix derives a verb from a noun. Hukapona ya- hiya peman an dumangdang nan no; toan an kay tubung. He covered it and yes, it really can give heat; what I don’t know, it’s like a tube. Mangin-innum da moy tagu ya hamulon da nan ongngal an nuwang an makalin hidug. After the free-for-all rice-throwing, the people go on with the merrymaking, drinking and feasting on a big carabao called a hidug. general: Both of the above sentences are from texts. The first is from a text about a kerosene heater, and the second is from a text about the hagabi-bench and the celebration associated with it. pa- -on

‑um‑ ‑an TACR. 1this circumfix encodes a non-past tense process and cross-references a specific object. Ya hay importanten punggastuwam ya nadan liblum mahapul mu ta maid di humlun hi bumabaan di grades mu. And the most important thing is to spend (your money) on those books you need so that nothing will cause your grades to be lowered. Oha bo ya nakalligat di pumalattugan. Another reason is, their guns were hard to shoot (not automatic). Bumanidbidak hi liblu nah bakasyon. I do nothing but read books during vacation. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2non-past tense, reciprocal action. Pumanuddugan da yaden nahuyop hi inada. They keep running after each other while their mother is asleep.

abono₁ 1intrans. to work without pay, free labor. Mun-abono kayu. You will work for free. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class . Sim: baddang, tulung, dang-a. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.) 2trans. to pay for something for someone, making it free for them. [If the payment is offered without being requested, it will not be reimbursed.] Abonowam ta ahik bayadan. Pay for me and I will pay you later. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

abono₂ 1comm. fertilizer. 2to fertilize. (sem. domains: 6.2.2.3 - Fertilize a field.) 2.1intrans. to apply fertilizer; a durative activity. Mun-abono takuh bigat. We are going to apply fertilizer tomorrow. muN‑/nuN‑. 2.2trans. to apply fertilizer to plants. Abonowam nan bulhe. Put fertilizer on the beans. Em abonowan nan intanom mu. Go and fertilize what you have planted. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Class 5A Changing state of site by adding something. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

abu 1adv. (prim) an adverb that limits and minimizes whatever concept that it modifies, e.g. an action, process, number, emotion. <Morphology: Derivation and compounding are common word formation processes with this morpheme.> Ha-on ya abu di ume. I only will go. Hanada ya abu makahhapul muy gatangom. Spend only for things that you really need. Tinibo mi an hay nidadaan ya abu ya duwan palangganan hinamal. We saw that what was prepared for us was only two basins of rice. Limiting and maximizing. Sim: ampod. (sem. domains: 9.2.2 - Adverbs.) 2adv. (sec) an expression of restriction or limitation. Abu moh nae! Stop that! Abu moy kumodokodoh pihhu. Enough of your begging for money! 3trans. can become a derived verb that cross-references an object. Bokon ya abuwan datuwey matibod Manila. These are not the only things seen in Manila. comp. abuna comp. adin-abu comp. ot ya abu der. ab-abbu der. abuwan der. abuy

abunadi (comp. of abuna) advpred. a compound that expresses the idea that time and effort have been invested in accomplishing a task with little or no result; enough already, don’t bother with more effort. Abunadi ya mun-oonan. Don’t bother anymore, it’s just taking up space. Limiting or minimalizing. (sem. domains: 3.2.5 - Opinion.)

ad uwani (n. ph. of uwani) adv. 1refers to the day at the time of the speech event. Ad uwani aliyan ama an malpud Baguio. Today, Father will come from Baguio. Time. Syn: adn’iman. (sem. domains: 8.4.1.2.2 - Yesterday, today, tomorrow.) 2refers to the time at hand. Mipalpud uwani ya adik kulkulugon di kalkalyom. Starting now, I will not believe what you say./From now on I will not believe what you say.

adi 1neg. negation of intentional and abilitative actions; will not; cannot. Adiyak ume. I will not go. Adiyak paka-adal nan kumalih English. I cannot learn to speak English. Mu adi nama-ag on himmagabiy tagu. But not just anyone can perform the hagabi-ceremony. (sem. domains: 9.4.6.1 - No, not.) 2neg. negative answer to a question regarding intention to act; no. 3neg. negative of the command to perform or execute an action; don’t. Adim alan. Don’t get it. Iadim di humgop hi baleyu. Don’t let anyone enter your house. i‑/iN‑. 4trans. to prohibit or prevent an action. Umali nah langtay ya inang-ang nah Lammooy an gimpanay takle nat iadi nanno umeh Pangka. He came to the bridge and he saw Lammooy who extended his arm preventing Pangka to pass. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.4.1 - Disagree.) comp. adi bo comp. adinadama comp. adin-abu der. addi-addi der. ad-addi der. ad-adi der. adiyon der. miadi der. mun-addiaddi

ag-agam (infl. of ag-aga) adjunct. expression of annoyance; may also express irony. Ag-agam kah-in di ha-oy. Why must it always be me (to be required to do something)? Ag-agam di halaman mu. Why is it that you are so early. (expresses irony, the person is late) Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.6 - Particles.)

ahitunod (tunod) nom. season for transplanting rice from seedbeds to the fields. Dakol di ngunu nah ahi tunod. There’s a lot of work during the transplanting season. Nagibbuy ahi tunod tuh boble. The season of transplanting here in our village is finished. Gen: ahi. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

ak pers. 1I; first person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 2 subject pronouns, cross-referenced by verbal affixes. <Morphophonology: When a verb ends in a vowel, this pronoun attaches to the verb as an enclitic, and a consonant will be inserted between the verb and the pronoun.> Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Immi-ingleyak an pinhod kun umanamut mo indani bo kaya ya uminghaak. I felt so lonely that I wanted to return home, but after a while I became adjusted. Mungngahngahak yaden mungkaliyak hi bale mi. I gasped for breath and yet I shouted at our house. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2me; first person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 3 object pronouns; cross-referenced by verbal affixes. Adiyak danugon te mahakitanak Don’t hit me because I easily feel pain. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language.

akaw adjunct. expression of dismay or disappointment; good grief; oh no. Eka ke ibagan Sakai hin mabalin an makilugan takuh kotsa da. Akaw, adiyak te bumainak. Would you go and ask Sakai if we can ride with him in his car? Oh no, I will not because I would be embarassed. Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

aki 1comm. very strong jealousy of someone’s advantage. [Someone would rather throw away or destroy something than to let it be for another’s advantage; this type of jealousy is considered to be worse than the imut-type.] Namahig di akin Allaga. Allaga is jealous of others well being. 6B Characteristic of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.1.8 - Jealous.) 2sta. to be selfish, jealous. Maka-akin hinag-on. He is such a selfish neighbor. ma‑, makaC‑.

alino 1comm. tree variety, has bark fibers which are used for bundling; the fibers are slippery; the trees chosen are the long straight ones. Immeh aman e immalah alinoh muyung. My father went to get alino-bark from the forest. Sim: bulyu. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree, 6.2.5.4 - Plant product.) 2intrans. to get alino-tree fiber. E mangalino da amah pamobod. Father and his companions are going to get alino-fiber for tying. maN‑/naN‑. 3trans. string made from alino-tree fiber. [The alino-tree fiber is soaked in water and drained. If steeped properly, the fiber is white; if over-steeped, the fiber turns black.] Impamtok mi nan inalino da ama. We used the alino-string which father made for binding. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 6.7.5 - Fastening tool, 7.5.4.1 - Rope, string.)

ama 1comm. refers to a man who has biologically produced a child; used in reference to one’s own father. Mauleh ama. Father is kind. Ninomnom nay imbagan amanan din hi Antonio. He remembered what his late father, Antonio, told him. Syn: papa. (sem. domains: 4.1.9.1.2 - Father, mother, 4.1.9.1 - Related by birth.) 2comm. term used in addressing one’s biological father or the respectful address of a man who is older, within the generation of one’s father. Ama, daaanay pangayam. Mister, where are you going? (sem. domains: 4.1.9.1.6 - Uncle, aunt, 2 - Person.) 3trans. refers to the action of a man in adopting or treating someone as his child. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. der. ama-on der. am-ama der. hin-ama der. hin-am-a der. mungka-am-ama der. naka-am-ama

ammu sta. to be of sufficient quantity; to be enough of a quantity. <The frozen form is ammuna.> Umammuy hinamal? Will the rice be enough? Ammuna! Ag-agam di kalim. Enough! You talk too much. Ammunah. That’s enough. Am-amunah nae? Is that far one the only one? ‑um‑. (sem. domains: 8.1.7 - Enough.)

amta trans. to know; to recognize. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. An inamta muh Amtalao? Do you know Amtalao? {literary} ‑on/‑in‑. Sim: inila. Language Of Borrowing: Keley-i Kallahan.

an₂ int. interrogative marker; question marker. <This is the yes - no question marker; asks for confirmation; may optionally compound with all question words as a proclitic.> An waday boga? Is there any rice? Andaanay nangayam? Where did you go (towards)? An hinaey ihumang mun ha-oy? Is that your answer to me? “An inilam an mangipaptok?” kanan bon inaonan hi Magappid. “Do you know how to take care of it?” Aunt Magappid said. comp. antipe

andaan (daan) int. interrogative pronoun; where. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangamung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. If where ever now there is even a little money found, hide it until some day when you might need it badly. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.4 - Question words.)

andani₁ (sp. var. andai) 1interval of time. 1.1advpred. predicates the idea of waiting for a short period of time. Andani ta munhannotak. Wait so that I will change my clothes. Indani ke ta ahi taku umeh andani. Wait a moment; we will go in a short time. (sem. domains: 8.4.2.1 - A short time.) 1.2adv. a short while; a moment; a short time; a little later. Deket hi andani ya umali ka. You come later on. Andani ya nagibbu nan baki hiyam ta himpuluy oras nagibbu. Later on, the baki-ritual was finished....nine to ten hours finished. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.5.2.1 - After.) 2adv. every now and then Kadaidai on umen e uminum. Every now and then he goes to drink.

anggulud (sp. var. hanggulud) intrans. to snore; rale - the abnormal sound of breathing when one has a cough or cold. Mun-anggulud hi Jose. Jose snores. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: danggok. (sem. domains: 5.7 - Sleep, 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.)

anikdul intrans. to make a pounding noise on floor or walls, often done by children playing. Tipe bot mun-anikdul day u-unga? Why are the children making all that noise? Umanikdul da nadan u-unga hin ipukung yu dida. The children will make noise if you lock them up. muN‑, ‑um‑. Sim: alidogdog, alikudukud; Sim: kudu. (sem. domains: 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.)

anno (sp. var. ano) adjunct. hesitation word like ‘uh’ in English. Interjection.

annoka (sp. var. of anoka) a word substituted for an unknown or forgotten word; thingamagig.

ano₁ comm. bamboo, small with thick walls variety; more pliant than ugo variety, usually cut into strips for bundling rice stalks; used for flooring or water container; sometimes the shoots are eaten. Nakapyah ano nan hukup. The rice basket is made from ano-bamboo. Gen: kawayan.

ano₂ (sp. var. of anno)

anoka (sp. var. anuka; sp. var. annoka) 1dem. thingamajig; what-you-may-call-it, an expression standing for anything unknown or forgotten at the moment. Hamakon taku nanno anoka nanno libbutan. Let’s look for ahh- that thing, ahh- that betelnut bag. Sim: kuwan. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) 2pass. anything; anyone. Adi itayon di kumpulmin tagu mo hay anhan di nianokan diyye ya hay immuya-uy. The ordinary man cannot dance that one, it is not for just anyone, it is the dance of the rich. ni‑. comp. hin anoka ta

antipe (fr. var. antipet) (comp. of tipe, an) int. why; interrogative pronoun; used in asking the reason for something. <Morphology: This word is a compound consisting of the general question marker, an, and the why question marker, tipe.> Antipe ta maid di tagu? Why is it that there is nobody around? Antipet idihhan muy tukuk mu ten mungkaliyak. Why do you coincidentally shout while I’m talking? general: It seems to be a matter of preference as to when the compound or the 'why' word only is used. (sem. domains: 9.6.2.5 - Cause, 9.6.2.5.1 - Reason.)

atag 1comm. a mat for putting the harvested rice under the granary; made from cane. Bitbitom nan atag ta pangiha-adan hi makan. Spread the mat so that we will place the food on it. 2trans. to spread a mat. Iatag mu ta ubunan taku. Spread the mat so that we can sit on it. i‑/iN‑.

athitu (umat, hitu) advpred. like this; to compare an event or action. Anakkayang! Maid ek tiniboh athitu hi kadakol di tagu. My! Never have I seen such (lit. like this) a crowd of people. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.2 - Compare.) der. miathitu

aydaayda adjunct. nonsense words, added for rhythm and assonance to rituals or epics.

bakbak 1comm. frog. Manling day bakbak ten umudan. The frogs croak when it rains. Nakangalay bakbak nah hilong. The frogs are very noisy especially at night. spec: tokyang, battug, tukak. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.3 - Reptile.) 2comm. a lot of frogs. Kabakbabakbak di matiboh iggatang dah di. It’s all frogs that can be seen which are sold there. 3trans. to catch frogs. maN‑/naN‑. der. mamakbak id. kay da nadulhukan nan bakbak

balabal₂ trans. to strike and knock down hanging fruit by throwing a long stick to make it fall. Balabalom nan tabuyug ta mag-a. Strike the pomelo so that it will fall. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. Sim: tongba, gayang, baladung, balnu, bon’al, boka, alo. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

balibalinon (infl. of balin) trans. to say the opposite of what was said; opposite. Adim bo balibalinon nan kinali dan he-a. Do not say the opposite of what they told you. CV(C)CV‑ ‑on. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.)

baludibud comm. a tree variety which attaches to another tree; it may overshadow the fruit of the other tree and keep it from ripening; may be used as firewood. Nakalligat an patayon di baludibud. It is very hard to kill the baludibud- tree. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

ban-uk intrans. to feel annoyed by another’s action or speech. Mumbanban-uk hi Bugan nah em nangitud-akan ke hiya. Bugan is showing she is annoyed in your sending her for an errand. Bimman-uk hi Bugan dih nangidatana nah hapid. Bugan was annoyed when she gave the betelnut-leaf. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: mutmut, ngutuwol, ngudu, ngalotongot. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.3 - Angry.)

bangi₁ comm. snake, poisonous black species; 3” diameter, 6’ long. Kinalat di bangi na dapana ot linullumbagan. A bangi-snake bit his foot and it became badly swollen. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.3 - Reptile.)

bangiw trans. to turn something towards another direction; to divert towards another direction. Bangiwom nan ubunan hidi ta adi mihani nah dalanon. You turn the chair to that side so it won’t block the passage. Adi mabangiw nan talak. The vehicle cannot be turned. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 7.3.5 - Turn something.)

bangtinon comm. tree, hardwood variety, similar to the narra and mahogany. Kudukdul di bangtinon hi itukud mu hay udyo te makulhi. Bangtinon-wood is better for house posts than the narra because it is harder wood. Sim: bannutan. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

bangunon (infl. of bangun) intrans. to wake up; to shake someone awake. Bangunom nadan umeh iskul te mungkabigat mo. Wake up those who are going to school because it’s almost daylight. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 5.7.3 - Wake up.)

bano trans. to dish out viand; to ladle viand. Ibano yu nan ihda nah malukung. Ladle out the viand into the wooden bowl. Banowon yu nan ihdad nakugab. Dish out the leftovers from yesterday. Mumbano hi tulang na. His sibling is ladling out food from the pot. Bumano ka nah ka-ihaang. Ladle out some from the newly cooked food. Umibano kan nah ihda ne umakud ka bon nah hinamal. You ladle some viand and dish out also some cooked rice. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3A Move and position object at site. Sim: ak’ud, haklung, hoklad, ado. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.5 - Serve food.)

batnong trans. 1to coat a dike with mud; to plaster mud on a dike for maintenance or repair. Em batnongon din banong. Go and coat the dike with mud. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. Sim: kiggad, koltog, pat-ok. (sem. domains: 7.3.7 - Cover.) 2to place a dike boundary between ricefields. [The word may also be used for placing rocks or wood to mark a boundary line.] Batnongon da Dimmuluy ke Balajo nan ohan pukung. Mr.Dimmuluy and Mr. Balajo will divide the small ricepond by building a dike. ‑on/‑in‑. Syn: koltog.

bay-an trans. to leave alone; to not interfere. Bay-an da ke ya op-opya. If they leave him alone, he is quiet. Baybay-am nan gulipu ta mange nan liting. Don’t interfere with the pipe so the water will flow. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 4.3.4.6 - Meddle.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. der. baybay-an

baybay-an (der. of bay-an) advpred. 1to consider something to be one’s responsibility or business; for this meaning, it must be negated. Adim baybay-an muntudok ya itudok mun am-in di problemam. Don’t neglect to write regularly; write anything that bothers you. Manner. (sem. domains: 3.2.1.1 - Think about.) 2to neglect or ignore a situation, responsibility or task. (sem. domains: 3.2.6 - Remember.)

betsin 1comm. MSG; monosodium glutamate; Vetsin is a brand name of MSG. Adim ha-adan hi betsin nan ihda. Do not put Vetsin (MSG) in the viand. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.3 - Cooking ingredients.) 2trans. to add Vetsin to a dish. Betsinam nan ihda ta maphod di tamtam na. Place Vetsin in th viand so it will have some taste. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: English: Vetsin.

bigbig 1trans. to claim or acknowledge something or someone. Bigbigon daka an imbabale. He claims you as his child. ‑on/‑in‑. Sim: immatun, matmat. (sem. domains: 3.5.2.1 - Report.) 2sta. to recognize. Ugge daka nabigbig te immongal ka. I did not recognize you because you have grown. ma‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bilau (sp. var. bilao) comm. arrow grass; runos; canegrass, used for staking plants and for fences. Adika ume nah mabilau te waday ulog. Do not go to the place with many runos because there are snakes. Sim: katlubung; Sim: paul. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

bilid 1comm. mountain. Hitu ked Ifugao ya dakol di bilid an maang-ang. Here in Ifugao, many mountains can be seen. Etaku munhabal nah bilid. Let us go to make a swidden in the mountains. Ot mungkampu dad Awwa an tap-on di bilid. And they had their camp at the top of the mountain called Awwa. Sim: duntug. (sem. domains: 1.2.1.1 - Mountain.) 2intrans. to roam from mountain to mountain. Mumbilibilid day ulha. Wild pigs roam from mountain to mountain. muN‑ CV(C)CV‑. 3sta. to be mountainous, for an area to have many mountains. Mabilid nan kad-an di kudal. The ranch is mountainous.

binaang intrans. to glow; to glitter, e.g. stars, fire. Mumbinaang nan matan di nuwang nah hilong. The eyes of a carabao glow when it’s night. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 8.3.3.1 - Shine.)

binnanno intrans. to take turns in using something.

binokbok 1comm. yeast for fermenting. [The yeast for fermentation is made from ginger juice, onwad-flowering grass and ground rice.] Maphod di binokbok da. They have good fermenting yeast. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.7.1 - Alcohol preparation.) 2trans. to add yeast to rice for fermentation. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

binol sta. to be twisted, for something like thread to become twisted. Nabinol nan abolona. What she was weaving had twisted threads. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.3.1.5.2 - Twist, wring.)

binong-o comm. rice grain seeds selected for planting in a seedling bed. Inha-ad na nan binong-o nah alang. He placed the rice seed in the granary. Dakol di namung dah binong-o. They have gathered much rice seed (for seedling bed). (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.)

bokon 1neg. (prim) is not; are not; the negation form for the predicate constituent of an equational clause. Bokon he-a nan emi kalkalyon. It is not you whom we are talking about. Bokon ya abuwan datuwey matibod Manila. These are not the only things seen in Manila. Kananay “Man bokon mu hi Lammooy man impangang-ang ku.” He said, “It could not be, but I saw him as Lammooy?” Sim: ugge. (sem. domains: 9.4.6.1 - No, not.) 2(sec) a negative feeling or reaction. 2.1trans. (sec) to be annoyed; to feel resentment; to react negatively to something that is said or done. Adim boknon tun kalyok ke he-a. Do not be annoyed about what I tell you. ‑on. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.3 - Angry.) 2.2proc. (sec) to feel slighted; to feel hurt. <Inflected form: bumkon> ‑um‑. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.1.6 - Upset.) 2.3sta. (sec) refers to someone who is exceptionally sensitive to being slighted; inclined to pout or sulk. ma‑. bumkon comp. hin bokon der. mabkon

bolkano comm. volcano. Language of Borrowing: English.

bomba₂ comm. an x-rated film; a nude; pornographic material. Bomba nan inang-ang da. They saw a pornographic film. (sem. domains: 4.3.1.1 - Bad, immoral.)

bontog trans. to follow one after another in parade-like fashion. Bonbontogon yu nadan lata. Place the cans one after the other in a line. Na keh Sabadu on mabonbontog day umalin munggattang hidih malkadu. During Saturdays, vendors are coming one after another to sell at the market place. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑ CVC‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.5.2 - Follow.)

bulidu 1sta. to be irritated; to be annoyed. Mabulidu te naapput. He is irritated because he lost. ma‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.3 - Angry.) 2trans. Buliduwonak nah ingngunuk te dakol ya naligat. I am annoyed with my work because there is so much and it's hard. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

bulkano comm. a hole in the crust of a hill or mountain through which gases, ashes and rock are ejected; volcano. Hay bulkano mumpakolyog hi luta. It is volcanos that cause earthquakes. Language of Borrowing: English: volcano.

bunog comm. a fruit, edible but a bit sour. Kinan mi nan bunog nah muyung te nakaaggangan kami. We ate the bunog-fruit in the forest because we were very hungry. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1.2 - Food from fruit.)

CV1C2 1intensifier. the reduplication of the first syllable, CV(C), and the medial consonant of an adjective noun root is the form of the morpheme that encodes intensity; very. Dakdakol di ngunun di linalaki hantuh ahiga-ud. The men have more work during the plowing season. Hi Luis an ong-ongal ya himpuluy toona ya hi ke Julie ya onom. Luis, the older (lit. bigger), was ten years old and Julie was six. Mu dakdakol di kaapputan ta maahinut ot ya abun am-in. But one loses more times than he wins such that eventually, everything will be lost. 2dim. refers to something smaller than the norm; this reduplication form encoding this meaning co-occurs only with nouns.

da₁ pers. 1they; third person, plural pronoun; the form is a member of both Set 1 and Set 2 and encodes the subject grammtical relation, whether or not it is cross-referenced. Indatan dah Pangkah ittay hiyo dotag ot kanana ot di mun-iyan ad Mamangan. They gave Pangka some small er...meat and told him to spend the night at Mamangan. Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid outside of the camp. Inha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They left the basket in our house. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2third person plural, possessive pronoun, Set 1; equivalent to the English possessive pronoun ‘their’. Ume kamih bale da. We are going to their house. Loktat mo anhan ya nauman am-in di odon da. Soon enough, nothing was left of their heirlooms. Nun-idadaan day ootak da ya papahul da. They prepared their bolos and their spears. comp. dehdida ph. v. dedah di ph. v. dedah tu

daan (sp. var. da-an) int. where; interrogative pronoun; asking for the location of something. Daanay nalpuwam. Where did you come from? Daan nan kanam an kihkihdiyam? Where did you say you are living? An daana udot di pangal-am hi em itugatugal? Where do you get the money to be continuously gambling. (sem. domains: 8.5 - Location, 9.2.3.4 - Question words.) andaan comp. daana mo

daana mo (comp. of daan, mo) int. where now. [This implies that given the present circumstances there is a question that what is needed is not likely to be found.] (sem. domains: 3.5.1.5 - Ask.)

dadiye demonstrative. the plural form of the Set 3; those over there (away from speaker and listener); anaphoric (back reference) in text. Dadiye nan in-alik an page. Those over there are the palay I brought. Dadiye ya abuy Ippangyol an niha-ad ad Kiangan. So those were the only Spaniards who came to Kiangan. Inilam met an sigud an adik pinhod dadiye. You know also that I don’t like those. Binungbungan dan am-in dadiyen babatu. They blasted all those rocks using dynamite. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) der. dadiyey n. ph. ke dadiye

dahdi int. who; interrogative pronoun asking for the identification of someone. Dahdi kan kumanugkug? Who are you, knocking? (at the door) Nahngang hi Jose ya kananay “Dahdi Anah”? Jose was shocked and said “Anah who?” (sem. domains: 9.2.3.4 - Question words.) comp. dahdin

daka pers. you, singular; second person, singular, member of Set 3 object pronouns; cross-referenced by verbal affixes. Idatan dakah tinapay. I’ll give you bread. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

dakami pers. 1us, exclusive; first person, plural exclusive pronoun; member of Set 3 object pronouns; cross-referenced by verbal affixes. Ialiyan dakami ya- hi ubunan mi. Please bring us chairs and we will sit down.. Indattan dakamih kendi. Teya ay, kanak an pun-ukat ku nan kendin imbolsak. “She gave us candy. Here it is,” I said as I took the candy from my pocket. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2we, exclusive; first person, plural exclusive; member of Class 4 subject pronouns; the subject is preposed before the verb and is cross-referenced by verbal affixes. Dakami nan kimmanantan dih hilong. We were the ones who kept on singing last night. Dakami ke ya intuddu day iskul hi sentral ot ume kamih di. We were told to go to the Central School, so we went there. n. ph. ke dakami

dakayu pers. 1you-all; second person, plural, member of Set 3 object pronouns; cross-referenced by verbal affixes. Umaliyak ta boh-olan dakayu. I will come and scold you. Adi dakayu homkon mu kastiguwon dakayu. You will not be pitied, instead you will be punished. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2second person, plural pronoun; a member of Set 4 subject pronouns, preposed before the verb and cross-referenced by the verbal affix; you all. Dakayu nan dumisturboh hinuyop handih hilong te kumananta kayu. You were the ones disturbing our sleep last night because you kept on singing. Dakayuy umen e mangayag nah doktor. You will be the ones to go and call the doctor. n. ph. ke dakayu

dalat₁ 1trans. to mention something or someone. Adim oggan dalaton hiya. Don’t ever mention it again. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑. Speech Verbs - General. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2comm. a well-known person who is frequently talked about. Hiyay madmaddalat ta nangamung. He is the one mentioned all the time. (sem. domains: 2 - Person.)

damuna advpred. 1to delimit time by expressing the simultaneity of two different events; meantime; meanwhile. Um-umbun taku ni-an ta damunay kalutuwan nan kanon. Let us sit while the food is being cooked. Idadaan mu nan panganan ta damunay datngan da. Set the table, while waiting for them to arrive. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.5.2.2 - At the same time.) 2to delimit an amount; enough or more than enough; may relate to quantifying space, amount, accomplishment. Damunay ginastum yaden uggem pay ginibbuy adal mu. You spent much yet you still haven’t finished your studies. Damunay nginunum. You have accomplished more than enough. Damunay ginabutam. You cleared enough, a wide space. (sem. domains: 8.1.7 - Enough.)

danae demonstrative. the plural form of Set 3; those there by listener; anaphoric (back reference) in text. Kon dahdiy ugge nanginilan danae? (Job 12:3c) Is there anyone who doesn’t know those things? (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) danaey n. ph. ke danae

danggok 1comm. very loud sound of snoring. Madngol di danggok mun nah kalata. Your snore could be heard on the street. Sim: anggulud. (sem. domains: 5.7 - Sleep, 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.) 2intrans. to snore. Mundanggok ka handi hilong. You were snoring last night. Dimmanggok ya bimmangon nan golang. He snored and the baby woke up. Adik pinhod an makihuyop nah makaddanggok te tumukal. I don’t like to sleep with one who snores because it keeps me awake. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

dangkig trans. to place something by propping it against something else; to prop. Idangkig mu nan patanong mu nah tukud. Prop your walking stick against the wooden post. Idangkig ku nan payung nah panto. I propped the umbrella against the door. Adika midangkig ke ha-oy te madam-ot ka. Don’t lean against me because you are heavy. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. 3A Move and position object at site. Sim: handag. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.)

daplug (sp. var. duplug) knock over. 1.1trans. to knock over by bumping or overrunning as a flood. Kumaan kah na te idaplug dakan hiya. Get out of there because he will knock you over. Nidaplug nan ung-ungngan um-umbun te munhihilong an adi matibo. The child sitting there was knocked over because it was night and she couldn’t be seen. Nan olwang ya indaplug nah baleda. That flood, it overran their house. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) 1.2trans. to knock over, involves the manner or reason for the action. Ikiwangan yu ot din mangali te kay nuwang an umidaplug. Give way to the one coming because he will knock you over like a carabao. Pun-idaplug muy ubunan te adim tibon di dalanom. You knock the seat over because you don’t look where you are going. Mamtikak ya wada da nan nitanom nah pangidalanak ot pun-idaplug ku. I was running and there were plants in my way so I knocked them over. umi‑, puN‑ i‑. 1.3trans. to bump someone or something. Immali ot daplugonak ot bumtik. He came and bumped me and ran away. ‑on/‑in‑.

datuwe dem. 1these; the plural form of hituwe, a member of Set 3 demonstrative pronouns; refers to plural things close to speaker that have previously been referred to, must co-occur with noun head. Datuwen bibiyo ya damanan ipkod day tagu. They can take hold of a person’s life. Mumbohboh-ol an numbagan datuwen odon. She was very angry when she asked for these things. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) 2these here. <When the things being referred to are understood contextually, the demonstrative may occur without a noun reference.> Makie kamin emakidamun datuwe ad Lagawe te hidiy naduttuk hi datongan da. We will go with others to meet them in Lagawe because that is where they will arrive. De, datuwe ot nadan liblun ek hamahamakon! Aha, these books are exactly what I was looking for! der. datuwey n. ph. ke datuwe

dayakkot (sp. var. of dayyakot) 1) comm. rice, sticky variety; glutinous rice, used in rice cakes, candy and wine-making. Maid di dayakkot kinali uggeyak nungkail. There’s no sticky-rice, that’s why I did not make wine. Mahapul datuwe ten mungkail ka: boga, dayakkot an pummayume... These are needed in the making of wine: ordinary-rice, glutinous-rice to be mixed with the ordinary rice... Syn: diket. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2) trans. to add or mix sticky rice. Dayakkotan yu nan boga ta yumam-o hin mihaang. Place some glutinous-rice in the regular-rice so it will be soft when cooked.

dayaw to honor. 1.1trans. to honor; pay tribute to; to praise; to worship. Dayawon yuh apuyu. Honor your grandparent. Madayaw peman te maid di dakodakol an makalkalih mipanggep ke hiya. He is honored because not many things (bad) are said about him. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑. (sem. domains: 4.5.5 - Honor.) 1.2trans. to honor, involving the manner or reason for honoring. Atom keh na ya kon idayaw mu? If you do that, will it be for your honor? Idayaw yu nan maphod di at-attona. Honor the one who does good. i‑/iN‑. 1.3v. the activity of honor, praise or worship is in view. Immali dan mundayaw ke he-a. They came to honor you. Mundayaw da nadan mangulug ke Apu Dios. The believers are worshipping God. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

dida pers. 1them; third person, plural pronoun; member of Set 3 object pronouns; cross-referenced by verbal affixes. Idattam dida. Give some to them. Ot uggena inang-ang dida. And he did not see them. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2they; third person, plural pronoun; a member of Set 4 subject pronouns, preposed before the verb and cross-referenced by the verbal affix. Mu dida ke ne hinnatkon. But they are different. Dida kayay kombahul. They are the ones at fault. n. ph. ke dida

diket (sp. var. dikit) comm. rice, glutinous. Kapyaom nan diket hi binakle. Make the glutinous rice into rice cakes. Syn: dayakkot. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

dinol 1rely on. 1.1trans. to trust someone or something; to believe in the reliability of another. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.1.1 - Trust.) 1.2trans. to rely on; depend on. Gapu bot mauleyak ya pundinlam ta hay pinhod muy at-attom. Just because I am kind, you depend on that and do whatever you like. Pundindinlam hi inam an mangingunuh kanom. You are always depending on your mother to provide your food. Idinol muh kalyon da inam. Trust in what your mother says. i‑/iN‑, puN‑ ‑an. Sim: piyal. 2trustworthy. 2.1sta. to be worthy of confidence; to be trustworthy, one who can be relied on. Adi midinol te hinaulak. He is not trustworthy because he deceived me. mi‑. 2.2sta. to be and feel confident; to trust in someone or something. Madinol kami an hi Apu Dios an mamaddang dakami. We are confident that God will help us. Naapput da te makadinnol da te hay inila da ya makattakut di Ipugao. They were defeated because they were unsuspecting because they thought (were confident that) the Ifugao were cowards. ma‑, maka‑. 3comm. trust. Maid dinol kun he-a. I have no trust in you. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.1.1 - Trust.) der. madinol infl. idinol infl. makadinnol infl. mangidinol infl. midinol

distulbu (sp. var. dittolbo; sp. var. distorbo) 1comm. disturbance; annoyance. Opya ka te distulbu ka ya abu. Keep quiet because you are only a disturbance. Kaanom nan alad te distulbu tuh ingunu. Remove the fence because it is a disturbance to the task. 2trans. to disturb. Adim distulbuwon nan golang te nahuyop. Do not disturb the child because he is asleep. Madistulbu nadan nahuyop hi ngalam. Those asleep will be disturbed by your noise. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 4 - Social behavior.) 3intrans. to annoy. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Language Of Borrowing: English.

dita pers. 1us-two; first person, dual pronoun, member of Set 3 object; cross-referenced by verbal affixes. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2we-two; first person, dual pronoun, a member of Set 4 subject pronouns, preposed before the verb and cross-referenced by the verbal affix. Ditan duway ahi mangala nah intalun Oltagon an balat. We-two will be the ones to get the bananas that Oltagon kept. n. ph. ke dita

ditaku pers. 1us-all; first person, plural inclusive pronoun; member of Set 3 object pronouns; cross-referenced by verbal affixes. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2we-all; first person, plural pronoun; member of Set 4 subject pronouns; the subject is fronted and cross-referenced by verbal affixes. Ditakuy kombahul peman. We-all are certainly the ones at fault. Ditaku ken Ipugaw ya kulugon takun wadaday bibiyo weno pinading. We Ifugaos believe that there are bibiyo spirits or pinading spirits. n. ph. ke ditaku

diye dem. that one; refers to someone or something that is away from both speaker and hearer; shortened form of hidiye, a member of Set 3 demonstrative pronouns. Ya kanan diyey “Eyak umayag hi talak.” And that one answered “I’ll call for a jeep.” hidiye

diyyu dem. there far away; over yonder. Diyyu nan balen da Pedro. There yonder is the house of Pedro. (sem. domains: 8.5.1 - Here, there.)

dogap 1trans. to treat impartially or indifferently; to act in a way that does not differentiate among people. Idgap da kanuy pangibalohan da nah iKiangan. They do not differentiate among the people of Kiangan in taking revenge. Inidgap day ayag an adi umat nah waday imbitasyon an ammuna nadan nidattan an ume. They did not differentiate in their inviting of people, unlike when there are invitations and only those who receive them may go. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 4.7.9.1 - Impartial.) 2vary an action or activity. 2.1trans. to change or vary an activity ; to vary an action or activity without differentiating. Adim dogapon di pakikanam. Don’t eat at just anybody’s house. (randomly selected) Dogapom di ubunam. Why don’t you find a permanent seat and quit jumping from seat to seat. (check) morphology: dogapon ‑on ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 2.2pass. to be non-discriminate; varied. Nadgap di ngunuk. I have work that is varied. Nadgap di inayagan da. They called for just anyone. Nadgap di kalkalyom. You are talking of various topics.

doktor 1comm. doctor, male. Em ayagan nan doktor. Go and call for the doctor. Sim: doctora. (sem. domains: 2.5.7 - Treat disease.) 2intrans. to become a doctor. Mundoktor nan unga hin maongal. The child will become a doktor when he grows up. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. for a doctor to diagnose illness. Dinoktor na ya maid di dogo na. He diagnosed that she was not ill. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 2.5.7.1 - Doctor, nurse.) Language Of Borrowing: English.

dol-ak 1comm. a poisonous vine or coffee-bean-like poison for use in fishing; the vine is crushed then dried to be placed in the ricefields to catch fish. E immalah dol-ak hi ama. Father went to get the poisonous vine. Sim: ipe, tuba. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2intrans. to use the vine to catch fish. Eda manol-ak. They are going to catch fish using the dol-ak-vine. maN‑. 3intrans. to use the vine to catch a particular kind of fish. Dol-akon da nadan yuyu nah payo hi bigat. They will put the poison vine in the ricefield tomorow to get the Japanese fish. 4intrans. extended meaning to refer to something that tastes strong and may cause drunkenness. Dumol-ak nan impainum da. The thing they had me drink is strong. Nadol-ak te intaganah inum hi baya. He is drunk because he kept on drinking rice wine. ‑um‑.

Donglom tun pangiha-adak (id. of dongol) A witty way to say: See where I am placing this. an idiom for telling someone to see or to notice where something is being placed. (lit. hear this that I am placing) Donglom tun pangiha-adak. See where I am placing this. (lit. Listen to this my placement of it.)

donot (dial. var. of gonot) proc. to burn wood. Adi dumnot tun itungu. This firewood doesn’t burn.

dumittolbo (infl. of dittolbo) intrans. to irritate; to annoy. Dumittobo nan gunggung di ahu. The barking of the dog is irritating. ‑um‑. (sem. domains: 4.4.2 - Trouble.) Language Of Borrowing: English: disturb.

galambat 1sta. to make pointless statements; to say anything; no thought about what one is saying. Adik pinhod an makihummangan hi nagalambat di kalyona. I do not want to talk with someone who talks nonsense. Nagalambat di kanalyom. You are saying many things without a point. ma‑/na‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 3.5.5 - Foolish talk.) 2intrans. to interrupt a conversation with pointless talk. Adika po gumalambat hi hummangan mi. Do not interrupt our conversation. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

gita 1comm. venom, secretion of animals and insects. Waday gitan di gayyaman. Centipedes have venom. 2comm. rabies venom. Waday gitan di natagal an ahu. A mad dog has rabies venom. 3sta. to be venomous; to have venom. Nagitaan nan ulog an nangalat ke hiya. The snake which bit him is venomous. Nagitaan nan ukkon. The puppy has rabies. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

gitagit 1comm. grooves; notches; chop marks. Tuluy gitagit nan kaiw. The wood has three grooves. Ang-angom ke di gitagit nan bangko. Look at the notches on the bench. Sim: gim’a; Syn: gitok. (sem. domains: 7.7.7 - Mark.) 2trans. to notch something. Gitagitom nan kaiw. Notch the wood. Gitagitam nan gumok. Put notches on the metal. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)

gitok 1comm. grooves, notches or chop marks on wood. Ha-adam hi gitok nan pangipatakan. Place a groove on the spot to be nailed. Syn: gitagit. (sem. domains: 7.7.7 - Mark.) 2trans. to place a groove or notch on something. Gitokom nan kaiw. Place a groove on the wood. (in order to cut) ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) 3intrans. to make a notch or groove on wood. <When a noun is incorporated into the verb form, the verb becomes an intransitive verb grammatically though the transitive meaning component is still understood.> Adika munggitok. Don’t place grooves. muN‑/nuN‑.

gobernadol 1comm. refers to a governor; the head of the provincial government in the Philippines. Mungngunu nan gobernador ad Lagawe. The governor holds office (works) in Lagawe. (sem. domains: 4.6.1.2 - Government official.) 2intrans. to become the governor; to work as a governor. Pinhod Pedlon munggobernadol. Pedro wants to become the governor. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

goh-om intrans. 1to grunt. [A grunting sound usually made by a pig but at times, old people may make the sound, or can be part of a chant.] Munggoh-om nan babuy te nauwo nin. The pig is grunting because it might be thirsty. muN‑/nuN‑. 1D Sounds. Sim: ayyong, ayyog. 2to hum, may not have tune. [In the past, humming was used to express approval or in anticipation of something pleasurable, e.g. feast; it had sometimes been used to express a desire to do harm to an enemy.] Munggoh-om da nadan tatagu. The people were humming. Goh-oman yu nan kanta yu. Do some humming parts in your song. Kayang di goh-om di tataguh nangngolan dah uyauy ad Kiangan. How the people hummed when they heard about the marriage feast in Kiangan. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.)

gohnod trans. to stop at a certain place. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Inggohnod Aliguyun nah pumbayuwan. Aliguyun stopped by the mortar. {literary} i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.7.1 - Stop moving.)

gonnol comm. skin rash. (sem. domains: 2.5.2 - Disease.)

Gonob prop. refers to the invocation of ancestors and deities by name. Sim: Dulom. (sem. domains: 4.9.5.4 - Religious ceremony.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History

gonot (dial. var. donot) intrans. for something to be ignited because it is flammable. Ginumnot mo nan kapo. The cotton already caught fire. Adi gumnot tun itungu. This firewood doesn’t burn/ is not flammable. ‑um‑/‑inum‑. 2G Processes. (sem. domains: 5.5 - Fire.)

gud’ut 1advpred. move quickly. Uggek inimatunan te gudugudut nan mange. I did not recognize him because he went so fast. Time. (sem. domains: 7.2.1.1 - Walk.) 2intrans. to move noisily. Munggugudut an manged da-ul. He went down noisily. muN‑/nuN‑. 1A Movement with a manner component.

gumla advpred. predicates something as enough or adequate. Kon pangalim on gumlah tuwen kanon di hinggatut an tatagu? Do you think that this is enough food for a hundred people. Limiting or minimalizing. (sem. domains: 8.1.7 - Enough.)

ha-on (sp. var. of ha-oy) pers. I; first person, singular personal pronoun; Set 4 subject pronouns; the form is preposed before the verb and functions as a topicalized agent-subject; the form is cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Ha-on di mangipaalin hiya. I’ll be the one to have him come. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) (n. ph. ke ha-on)

ha-oy (sp. var. ha-on) pers. I, first person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 4 subject pronouns; the form is preposed before the verb and functions as a topicalized agent-subject; the form is cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Ha-oy mangipaali nah talak hitu. I will have the truck come here. Ha-oy ke ya handih wada ak ad Linda hi balen nan iban aman nih-adak I am the one who was in Linda staying at the house of my father’s relative at that time. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

had-om ta maba-oy nomnom da (id. of nomnom) wait until their anger is lessened (lit. wait, so that their minds will cool)

hakuku comm. snake species, like a cobra; a poisonous, big, spitting snake; strikes by lifting its head. [Old people say if you see a spitting cobra you or someone in your family will die; they believe that it sends out a vapor of invisible poison.] Maid di ek inang-ang hi hakuku. I haven’t sees a hakuku-snake. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.3 - Reptile.)

hamma sta. 1to be lost; to have lost one’s way in situations or circumstances. Ya kon wada key tagun nahamma ya kon adina ibangngad ta idalan nah ustun dalan? As for a person who has lost his way, won’t he return to walk on the correct path? ma‑/na‑. 6D Descriptives. Sim: tama. (sem. domains: 3.2.3.1 - Known, unknown.) 2to be ignorant; to lack knowledge about the right way to go or do something.

hanadah (nadah) dem. those; the plural form based on hanah, a member of Set 2 demonstrative pronouns; co-occurs with a noun and refers to a specific group of people or things. Daanay nangipaayan da hanadah dakol an tagu. Where did they send all those people? Ta hidiye nan lebbengnan munpasalamat dan APU DIOS gapuh ongal pamhod na ya gapun dakol hanadah umipamodwong an inatnan kiphodan da. (Psalm 107:15) Therefore, it is right that they thank God for his great love and for those many miracles he did for them. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hanadan (nadan) dem. those; the plural form of hanan, a member of Set 1 demonstrative pronouns; co-occurs with a noun and refers to specific people or things. Dahdi da hanadan nungkanta? Who were those who sang? Inayagak hanadan iibak ta munhuhummangan kami. I called for those relatives of mine so that we can have a talk. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hanah (han) dem. the; that; a demonstrative pronoun belonging to Set 2; co-occurs with a noun and refers to a specific person, place, time or thing. Inwalakana hanan lata ot ikawot na hanah ongal an batu. She let go of the can and held on to a big stone. Hanah dinalan da ya wada on i-itay an babalen lina-uwan dan wadaday i-itay bon tatagun numpumbaleh di. The place where they walked, they passed some small huts with small people living in them. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hanan (han) dem. the; that; a member of Set 1; co-occurs with a noun, and refers to specific people or things. <This form must co-occur with a noun; nan is shortened form> Hanan mittulu mi ke ya impakainnila nay mungkanta. The teacher knows how to sing well. Mahapul an hanan himmagabi ya taganah kolong hi nuwang o babuy ta pihdana nadah deh muyung ya nadan udum an bumadbaddang. The man performing the Hagabi-ceremony must go on butchering carabao and pigs to feed the people in the forest and all the others who are helping him. Hanan it-itay hidiyey appit di babai. While the side with the smaller head represents the woman. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

handi dem. a deictic that refers to a previous time; long ago; formerly; in olden times; before now. Handi ya duwan pihu ya abuy ohan kilo an asukal, ad uwani ya himpulu. Before, one kilo of sugar cost two pesos, now it is ten pesos. Kinalik ke he-a handi tuwali, mu adim kulugon. I told you before but you didn’t believe it. Sim: done. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) handih handin der. ohhandi

handidah dem. those; the plural form of handih, a member of Set 2 demonstrative pronouns; co-occurs with a noun, and refers to specific people or things in past times. Datuwey intugun APU DIOS handidah aammod yu. (Jeremiah 17:22b) These things are what God commanded those people, your ancestors. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

handidan dem. those; the plural form of handin, a member of Set 1 demonstrative pronouns; co-occurs with a noun and refers to specific people or things in past times. Handidan aammod taku ya adida mungkamihhita. Those forefathers of ours did not wear T-shirts. Maid ke handidan aammod an kimmalikali an kanan day matongaal tan mun-itkul ya wada ot an ohaak damdama hanadah natag-ey adal na. If it hadn’t been for those old folks who kept discouraging me and saying that studying is distracting and has no value, I could have been one of those highly educated now. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

handih (handi) dem. then, past, e. g. at that time when something happened or was done; a member of Set 4 demonstrative pronouns; refers to times of events. Kinapyan di aammod taku hantudan payo handih wandi. Our ancestors made these ricefield a long time ago. Mu pamganay op-opya handih dingngol nah diye. (1 Samuel 10:27c) But he was just quiet when he heard that. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

handin (handi) dem. that time in the past; a member of Set 4 demonstrative pronouns referring primarily to time. Hidiyen naat di immanungan handin impaabig Apu Dios. (1 Kings 22:38c) That happened in fulfillment of what God caused to be prophesized before in time past. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hannot (sp. var. hanot) 1trans. to exchange; to trade; to replace. Ihannot ku tun manuk hi gawgawa. I’ll exchange/trade this chicken for a duck. Hannotam nan pihu an inalam. You replace (pay back) the money which you got. Hannotanay bulwatina. She’ll exchange her dress. Dahdiy mihannot ke gobernador? Who will replace the governor? Mahannotan hantuh April. He’ll be replaced this April. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3H Conversive action process. Sim: hulul. (sem. domains: 6.8.4.9 - Exchange, trade, 7.5.6 - Substitute.) 2ref. to change one’s own clothes. Had-onak ta munhannotak. Wait for me for I’ll change (my dress). Munhannot ka. You go and change your clothes. muN‑/nuN‑. 3comm. a replacement. Daan di hannot nan bulwati an impabangngad ku. Where is the replacement of the dress which I returned? infl. mahanhannot

hanot (sp. var. of hannot)

hantu ken (hantun, ke) dem. this; the hantun form is a member of Set 1 demonstrative pronouns; the insertion of the ke form adds a contrastive component. Bagin APU DIOS di kabunyan ya hantu ken luta ya indat na tatagu. (Psalm 115:16) Heaven belongs to God and as for this earth, he gave it to people. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hantudah (hantuh, tudah) dem. these; the plural form of hantuh, a member of Set 2 demonstrative pronouns; co-occurs with a noun and refers to specific people or things. Athidi damdama hantudah matagun wada tuh luta. (1 Corinthians 15:39a) Like that also, these living things existing here on earth. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hantudan demonstrative. these; the plural form of hantun, a member of set 1 demonstrative pronouns; co-occurs with a noun and refers to specific people or things. Hantudan manuk hitu ya ieyu didah nah alang. These chickens here now will be brought to the granary. Tipet idngol muh kalin hantudan tatagu on ahim inat di pinhod mun aton; kon maid di nomnom mu? Why do you bother to listen to these people before doing what you want; don’t you have a mind of your own? Daanay pungkiha-adan hantudan tatagu? Where will all of these people be accommodated? (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hantuh (tuh, hi, han) dem. when, future; then, future; demonstrative pronoun belonging to Set 2; refers to a future time when an event is expected to happen. Hantuh aliyan da ya piayag daka. When they will come, I will send for you. Kanan apunay ahina idattan hi ligaluna hantuh madatngan an algon di nitungawana. His grandfahter promised to give him a gift on his next birthday. Dakdakol di ngunun di linalaki hantuh ahiga-ud. The men have more work when it is plowing season. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) hantudah

hantun (comp. of tun, han) dem. this; a member of Set 1 demonstrative pronouns that co-occurs with a noun to indicate that someone or something is near-at-hand. Hantun tagu ya ad-adiy punnomnom dan he-a. This person does not think too highly of you. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) hantu ken

hay det. a determiner that marks a topicalized constituent noun phrase in an equational sentence; the person or thing referred to is indefinite and non-specific. Hay ngadan bon nan kay ubunan an eda alan hi muyung ya hagabi damdama. As for the name of that benchlike figure that they get in the forest, it is hagabi also. Takon di hay dangli na ya maid ta daana mo peman di e pangal-an nan inayana. Even as for his death ritual, there was nowhere for his wife to go to get money for it. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

Hay itanom mu ya hidiyey aniyom. (say. of ani) to gather the fruit of one’s deeds; reap what you sow. (lit. What you plant is what you will harvest.) [This saying is thought to be borrowed by some speakers of the language.] (sem. domains: 4.4 - Prosperity, trouble.)

Hay kiphodan weno kadadagan ya hilapon di mata. (say. of hilap) A vision may be good or bad. (lit. What the eye visions is good or bad.)

haynod trans. to be next in an ordered sequence. Nganney mihaynod nah kanta? What comes after the song? Dahdiy nihaynod ke he-a? Who is next to you (speaking of a brother or sister; birth order). Munhahaynod di mate. One after the other is dying. (So many are dying one after another.) i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑, muN‑ CV. Sim: tun-ud. (sem. domains: 8.4.5.1 - Order, sequence.)

he-a pers. you, singular; second person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 4 subject pronouns; the subject is preposed before the verb and cross-referenced by the verbal affix; the form is also an address and is preposed. He-a ken ohan ap-apuk ya donglom tun kalik. You, my grandchild, listen to my advice. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) n. ph. ke he-a

hi det. 1a determiner that marks any noun referring to a person, including kin terms and proper names. <Morphophonology: When the preceding word ends in a vowel, the vowel ‘i’ of the determiner is reduced, and the consonant ‘h’ is attached to the preceding word.> Hi Juan di nangidat ketuwe. It was Juan who gave this. Takon maka-atung on kinawot da ta ialo dah ibba da. Even if it’s very hot, they grab it and throw it at their companions. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) 2marks a definite place that is not a proper noun. Kay anhan ya idatong dah boble ta inay-un dah dolan di himmagabi. Sooner or later, the hagabi-bench will arrive in the village brought by the men and to the yard of the man performing the ceremony. 3marks an indefinite direct or indirect object noun; the marked noun is not cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Tawagam hi Tayaban ta bumano kah pihhuna. Call Tayaban and borrow money from him. “Maule ot di bibiyo te umidat hi kendi, hiya ina,” an kanak bo. “Fairies are kind because they give candy, isn’t that right, mother?” I said again. 4marks an embedded nominalized clause that expresses a reason for a condition or state in the main clause. An daana udot di pangal-am hi em itugatugal? Where do you get the money to be continuously gambling? hantuh hidiye

hidi (fr. var. dih) dem. demonstrative pronoun, Set 4; there; over there; away from both speaker and hearer. <Morphophonology: When the preceding word ends in a vowel, the initial consonant ‘h’ attaches to that word, the vowel ‘i’ is dropped and di remains alone.> Umeyak hidi. I’ll go there. Daana, hidih nakiddawwi? Where, there far away? Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) comp. atbohdi comp. athidi comp. athidiy comp. dehdi comp. deyahdi comp. wadahdi der. ihdi der. kihdiyan ph. v. dedah di

hidiye (diye, hi) demonstrative. demonstrative pronoun that does not require a co-occurring noun; that over there, definite reference to something, away from both speaker and hearer. Hidiye di balen da Juan. That one over there is the house of Juan. Man-uke kanak hidiye ya adalon dan mumbaki nah eda pundongdongollan ya abu. The reason I say that is that they learn to recite the rituals and prayers by listening only. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) hidiyen hidiyey

hidiyen (hidiye) dem. 1in written communication, this demonstrative pronoun is anaphoric in function, i.e. it refers to something introduced previously. Nainnilaak ke uncle an hidiyen tagu ya hi Balwag di ngadana. I learned from my uncle that that man’s name was Balwag. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) 2in oral communication, this demonstrative pronoun form co-occurs with a noun that is away from both speaker and hearer. <Morphophonemics: contraction, hidiye + an.> Nihuklung hidiyen babai. That woman is possessed.

higi trans. to winnow; to separate unhusked rice from husked rice, by shaking and moving the winnowing basket in a circular motion. Higiom ta tumapo day ota. Shake the container so that the unhusked rice will come to the top. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 3E Move an object directionally. Sim: yapyap, taop. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.2.1 - Remove shell, skin.)

hikat (sp. var. hitak) trans. to insert something underneath another thing; to put something under or between. [The word is usually used in relation to inserting something to raise or make another thing level. ] Ha-adam hi hikat nan dulung. Insert something between the floor boards. Hikatam nan tukud ta tumagtag-e. Insert something under the post to raise it. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 7.3.2.6 - Put in.)

hikgut 1comm. knot. Nihamad di hikgut na. The knot is tight. 2trans. to tighten a knot. Hikgutom nan bobod di manuk. Tighten the string of the chicken. Hikgutom di wanom. Tighten your loin cloth. Ihikgut mu nan bobod di apatut na. Tighten the string of his shoes. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 7.3.2.8 - Pull.)

himbatangan comm. afternoon; between 3:00 - 5:00 p.m. is the time referred to. Namahig di atung hanah himbatangan. It is very hot in the afternoon. Himbatangan ke on mungngala day dulduli. During afternoons cicadas become noisy. Dakol di tatagun umed Manila Bay ten himbatangan te da tibon nan kalimuhan nan algo. Many people go to Manila Bay in the afternoon because they go to see the setting of the sun. (sem. domains: 8.4.1.2.3 - Time of the day.)

himpulut onom (comp. of onom, himpulu) quan. refers to the cardinal number sixteen. (sem. domains: 8.1.1 - Number.)

hin anoka ta (sp. var. ten anoka ta) (comp. of hin, anoka, ta The conjunction links a statement of means with a statement of purpose.) conj. just in case; if the situation is like this. Hin anoka ta adiyak umanamut hi andai ya mana-ang ka. Just in case I don’t come home by and by, you cook. Compounding conjunctions and adjuncts. Sim: kananaket. (sem. domains: 9.4.4.6.2 - Maybe.)

hin bokon (comp. of hin, bokon) negpred. this is a predicate assertion that what follows is the only possibility of a true fact. Maid di udum an tatagu tuh lutan makabbendisyonan hin bokon dakayu ya abu. (Deuteronomy 7:14) There are no other people here on earth that he has blessed so greatly if not you only. (sem. domains: 9.4.5.1 - Evaluator.)

hiN- -on TACR. this circumfix encodes a non-past modal that adds the meaning of ‘to pretend’ to the verbal root; the suffix part of the circumfix cross-references the object in the clause. <With a statement, rather than imperative, a ka- prefix is also added to the affix combination.> Himbaybayuom nan page. Pretend to be pounding the rice. Kahindongdongollona hi kinalik. He pretends to be listening to what I have said. (sem. domains: 9.4.2 - Agent-oriented modalities.)

hina dem. demonstrative pronoun; there by you, definite reference to something near hearer. Hinay pinhod ku. There is where I want. Umaliyak hina. I will come there. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) athina athinay comp. dehna comp. deyahna comp. wadahna der. ihna

hinae₁ (nae, hi) demonstrative. Class 3 demonstrative pronoun; definite reference to something near hearer; endophoric reference. Iwagot muh naen hapang ta mag-a da nadan abal. Shake that branch so that the beetles will fall. Iha-ad muh nae. Place that one. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hinolgat (der. of holgat) comm. spear with the barb curved downward. Gimmatang nan Malikano hi hinolgat. The American bought a barbed spear. Sim: balabog, baghe, pahul, gayang, ludit. (sem. domains: 4.8.3.7 - Weapon, shoot.)

hitu 1dem. Class 4 demonstrative pronoun; refers to spatial area: here, near speaker. <Morphophonology: the h of the demonstrative attaches to a previous word ending in a V; the i vowel of the demonstrative drops, and the tu remains.> Dahdiy wadah tu? Who is in here? Handih nun-ap-apuwan di Ippangyol hitud Pilipinas ya waday immalid Kiangan. During the Spanish rule here in the Philippines, some of them came to Kiangan. Hitu ke ya danum an maid di poppog nay maang-ang. Here, all you see is water without an end. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) 2comm. refers to someone who is from the place,where the speaker is talking; from here. Ihitu da. They are from this place. 3nom. the place where someone resides; home; speaker’s house. Indani udot ya wada on tagun nanibon hiya ot baddanganan ianamut hi nunhituwan mid Longnga. Fortunately, a man was passing by and saw him and brought him to our house in Longnga. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. athitu comp. athituy comp. dehtu comp. deyahtu comp. wadahtu der. ihtu der. nunhituwan ph. v. dedah tu

hituwe dem. this; a member of Set 3 demonstrative pronouns; refers to something that is close to the speaker. Hay punnomnom ku ya wada nin an dakdakkol di naat mu, mu hituwe. My thinking was that you would have done much more than this. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) hituweh hituwen hituwey

hituweh (hituwe) dem. this; the form is based on hituwe, a member of Set 3 demonstrative pronouns and co-occurs with the determiner hi. Ya adiyu kanan di intudok kuh tuwen dakayu te pinhod kun umidat kayuh mahapul ku te maid hituweh nomnom ku. And don’t think that I wrote this to you because I want you to give what I need because there is nothing like this in my mind. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hituwen (hituwe) dem. this; the form is based on hituwe, a member of Set 3 demonstrative pronouns and co-occurs with the linker an. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman. This so-called prestige feast entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hiya₂ pers. he, she, it; third person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 4 subject pronouns; preposed before the verb and cross-referenced by the verbal affix. Hiya nan madle an deh Conbento. Mu nalpud Belgium kinali mablay bolat na. She is a nun in the convent. But she is from Belgium, that is why her skin is white. Hiya ke ya pakappinhod da aman inana ya hi apunan hi Dulnuan. He loved his father, mother and grandfather Dulnuan. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) n. ph. ke hiya

hong-ot 1comm. the sound of blowing of the nose. (sem. domains: 2.2.4 - Mucus.) 2intrans. to blow the nose. Humong-ot kah panyuk mu. Blow your nose into your handkerchief. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2E Physiological functions.

hulu₂ 1comm. a noose trap; a string is placed in such a way as to catch an animal by the feet or by the head. Inha-ad na nan hulu nah dinalan di ulha. He placed the noose-trap where the wild pig passed. Sim: appad, lingon, bawol, balai. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.) 2intrans. to set a noose trap. Eda manuluh amunin. They are going to noose-trap squirrels. maN‑/naN‑.

humilong di nomnom (id. of hilong) confused; refers to the inability to think or understand (lit. darkened mind). (sem. domains: 3.2.4.1 - Misunderstand.)

hungahung₁ comm. a pig's snout. Andukke hungahung di babuy. A pig’s snout is long. Sim: tok’o. (sem. domains: 1.6.2 - Parts of an animal.) id. hungahung

hunnop (sp. var. of hunnup)

hunod intrans. to step backward; to back up; used of a person or car moving backwards. Humunod ka aga ta dumalanak. Please step backward so I can pass. Munhunohunod te timmakut nah nabutong. He was stepping backwards because he was afraid of the drunk. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1B Movement with a directional component. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.2 - Move back.)

i- -an TACR. this circumfix cross-references a beneficiary-object of an action and encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect. I-ang-angam hi bulwatih inam. Look for a dress for your mother. Igaudam hi inam te nain-ina mo. Spade for your mother because she is old already. Mahapul an ibakiyan ya ahi pinumhod. Instead a shaman has to perform a ritual for him to make him well. Deket munda-guh da ya mahapul an painuman ya ipaltiyan nan kon bale. If they should stop at a house, the relative must give them wine and butcher a pig for them. Sim: iN- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

i-₁ TACR. 1this prefix encodes non-past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross-references the direct object with the conveyed semantic role. It is a member of the default affix set for Class 3 verbal roots. Iha-ad muh nae hitu. Place that one here. Iha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They will put the basket in our house. Kay anhan ya idatong dah boble ta inay-un dah dolan di himmagabi. Sooner or later, the hagabi-bench will arrive in the village brought by the men and to the yard of the man performing the ceremony. Em iwaklin nan buhi. Put the wine jar in a safe place. Sim: iN-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it derives a transitive verb when it co-occurs with Class 1A intransitive movement verbal roots and cross-references an object that moves with the agent, e.g. to bring something or to take something. I-alik nan liblum. I will bring your book. (I will come bringing your book.) 3the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross references an instrument object with Class 4 verbal roots. Idikhal na nan matadom an wahe. He will use the sharp ax to split wood. Nganney ipalang mu? What will you use to cut with? Inggatang nay payo da ya odon da ta hay ahan itugal na. He sold their ricefields and heirlooms just to have money with which to gamble. 4the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and expresses a manner component related to the phrase or clause in the direct object NP position of the main clause. Ipdug nay gunggung na. He chases with barking. Adim iploy pangalam hi pencil na. Don’t get his pencil by grabbing. I-ang-ang kuh manayo. I’ll look at the dancers. Kalubam hi daun ya ihamad mu ta maid hunggop hi dibdib. Cover the jar tightly with banana leaves so that no air enters. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. 5the prefix encodes non-past tense; co-occurs with a time aspect adverbial predicate and cross-references the clause embedded in the object NP position of the main clause. Ituluy mun mangan inggana mabhug ka. You continue eating until you are satisfied. Itikod mun muntugal an ap-apuk. Stop gambling, grandson. 6the prefix encodes non-past tense, derives a verb from a noun, and the object is usually incorporated though a specific object may be explicit and cross-referenced. Deke bo ta makudang di binokbok na ya madang-o nan hinamal o maid di idanum na. When the binokbok-yeast is insufficient, the rice will either be spoiled (it will not ferment) or it will produce no wine/liquid. Nganney iduyum? What have you placed on your plate (lit. plated)? 7the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it co-occurs with speech verbs and cross-references the object that refers to what is said. Mun-ap-apo wak kanu ya- uggek inila nan ia-apok. Aga mot nan bumdang di ia-apok. According to them, I’ll tell a story; oh, I don’t know what to relate. Okay, I’ll tell a story about roaming spirits.

idinol (infl. of dinol) trans. to entrust something to someone. Idinol kun he-a tun pihhu an midat ke tualng mu. I am entrusting you with this money which is for your brother. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. (sem. domains: 4.3.4.5.3 - Entrust to the care of.)

ignolante comm. to be without knowledge and wisdom. (sem. domains: 3.2.3 - Know.)

ilmu (infl. of lumu) trans. to long for former times, to feel nostalgic; to long to see someone. Ilmu na da amanan inana, kinali kumga. He misses his father and mother, that’s why he cries. Il-ilmuk handih kaungak. I miss my boyhood days.(I wish these times were like my boyhood times.) i‑/iN‑. Sim: iliw, ingle. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.1.5 - Lonely.)

impaN- nominalizer. this prefix encodes past tense and functions to nominalize the verbal root; co-occurs with Class 4 and 5 verbal roots. <The use of this prefix is related to syntactic structure that has a topicalized constituent. > Hanadan u-ungan impanaptok ku ya mangohe dan ha-on. (Isaiah 1:2b) The children that I have cared for are rebelling against me. Man-uket makakkahlu kamin mangitaniuttuduh mipanggep ke Kristo ya gapuh impaminhod nan ditaku. (2 Corinth 5:14a) The reason that we are so very industrious to constantly teach about Christ is because of his love for us. Sim: impangi-, pangi-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

impangi- nominalizer. this prefix encodes past tense and functions to nominalize the verbal root. Ahina bo ipainilay makulug an impangi-en di hin-oh-an ditaku, takon nadan ugge nainilan inat taku ya nadan wada nomnom taku. (1 Corinth 4:5b) He will cause to be known the truth about the way of each one of us, even what is not known about what we have done and thought about doing. Sim: impaN-, pangi-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

impierno comm. hell; Hades. Gaga-iho key at-attom ya ume kad impierno. You’ll go to hell if you keep doing evil. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: infierno.

indaan int. why not; an interrogative pronoun used to ask for the reason why someone has not or will not do what could be expected; why not; can be used as a rhetorical question. Indaan di pun-at mu? Why haven’t you stood for (defended) me? (sem. domains: 9.6.2.5 - Cause, 9.6.2.5.1 - Reason.)

ingal 1comm. shouting noise. Donglom di ingal din u-unga. Listen to the shouts of the children. Sim: tukuk. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2trans. to express excitement by cheering in competitive play or exhibition. Nganney ingaingalan di tatagu di hilong? What were the people cheering about last night? CVCV ‑an. 3intrans. to make a shouting noise. Tipet ekayu umingal? Why do you make noise? ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

ingngo 1intrans. to be similar; to be alike; to resemble; to be equal. Nun-ingngo di bulwati da. They have the same clothes. Adinadaman eka miingngon nah apum. You cannot be equal to your boss. muN‑, mi‑. Sim: obot, umat, paddung. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.2.1 - Same.) 2trans. to imitate; to follow or copy what someone does. Ining-ingo nay pungkalkalin inana. She imitated the way her mother talks. Ing-ingo nay pumbulwatin tulang na. She imitates the way her sister dresses. Iingngo yu nah kinapya dan ubunan. Imitate (make one the same) the chair that they made. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 4.3.1.2 - Meet a standard.) 3sta. to be identical. Naka-ingngoy angada te dappilda. Their faces are identical because they are twins. naka‑. 4proc. to become the same. Deket palhu di pangiha-angam, mahapul an uggan mu ikiwa ta mun-iingngoy lutu na. If a skillet is used, it is necessary to stir the rice from time to time so that it will be cooked evenly. muN‑ i‑. der. kaingngo der. kiingngohan

inila 1trans. to know; to perceive, understand or recognize the properties or characteristics of entities and abstract facts. An inilam di ngadana? Do you know his name? Inilaom di humang kuh bigat. You will know my answer tomorrow. Pinhod mun inilaon di Manila. Do you want to know about Manila? Takombo ot inilam met nadan maphod an authors. Anyway, I know that you know good authors. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Opp: dunu; Sim: amta. (sem. domains: 3.2.3 - Know.) 2pass. something is known. Nainilan hiyay nangala. It has been known that he was the one who got it. Nakanginnila ka. You are very knowledgeable. (sem. domains: 3.2.1.3 - Intelligent.) infl. mangipainila infl. nakanginnila ph. v. makainnila mo ahan say. Hay kaphod ya mainnilah pangi-e.

inilak ke ot idiom. if only I had known; an expression implying that if one had known about a situation, one would have acted differently. (sem. domains: 3.2.3.1 - Known, unknown.)

inodnod intrans. to go down to lower level. {ritual} (sem. domains: 7.2.2.5 - Move down.)

inolas (der. of olas) advpred. to do something each hour; hourly. Inolas nan nanginum tun agah yaden nanongnan nundogo. He swallowed this medicine hourly and yet he is still sick. Inolas hi kabigabigat on ena tibon nan appad na. Hourly each day, he goes to see his bird-trap. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.6.6.3 - Often, 8.4.1 - Period of time.)

inot sta. to be difficult to turn, something is not easily turned to remove or break a seal, e.g. bottle cap or other cover. Ag-agam di inot tun tinulid. My, how hard to break this thread Mainot an mitilon. It’s hard to turn. Mainot an bukatan te nahamad di nangidakkig na. It’s hard to open because it’s tightly closed. Uminot nan hukap di butilya te nalatiyan. The cap of the bottle will become hard to turn because of rust. ma‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.3.5 - Turn something.)

inoy (sp. var. of inay)

ipa- (sp. var. of ipi-) TACR. the prefix encodes a causative prefix; cross-references the object, but an agent, the person doing the action is always implied though the causative-agent is the subject; non-past tense. Ipaali na boy kolyog ya iwagot na nadan batun nipab-unan tun luta. He will bring an earthquake and he will shake the rocks that are seated on the earth. Deket kanan nan tagu di humagabi, ipainila na ni-an hi iibana. When a man decides to perform the hagabi-ceremony, he must first inform (cause to know) all his relatives. Sim: impa-, ipi-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

ipi- (sp. var. ipa-) TACR. this prefix encodes a causative; cross-references the object; non-past tense. [This variant of the prefix ipa- usually co-occurs with roots that have the vowel ‘a’ in the first syllable.] Ot ipien Annas hi Jesus an nanongnan nabalud hi kad-an Kaypas an natag-en padi. (Juan 18:24) And then, Annas had Jesus who was still bound taken to Kaypas the high priest. Ot ipipaptok na nadah imbabalenan linalaki. (Genesis 30:35b) And then, he had his sons taken care of them (sheep and goats). Sim: impa-, ipa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

itnod (id. of ton’od) to throw something at a moving target, e.g. person or thing (lit. chase with something).

ittangtangngad na (id. of tangad) he is snobbish (he is always-looking-up). (sem. domains: 3.2.5 - Opinion.)

ka pers. you; second person, singular pronoun; member of Set 2 subject pronouns; cross-referenced by the verbal affix. Hin-uddum an adika mangan. At times you don’t eat. Joan, deyan ume ka mo ahan tut-uwah college. Joan, you are now finally going to college. Maid ka handi hilong hi balen da Juan. You were not in the house of Juan last night. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

ka- -an₁ nominalizer. this circumfix derives a noun from a verb. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman This so-called prestige feast ‘hagabi’ entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers Maid di ena id-um hi kanomnoman ya mumbalin tan kay hiyyahiyya. Nothing is added to your wisdom and we may become proud and boastful. Dakol di tatagun umed Manila Bay ten himbatangan te da tibon nan kalimuhan nan algo. Many people go to Manila Bay in the afternoon because they go to see the setting of the sun. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.3 - Derivational affixes.)

ka- CV(C)CV- comm. this affix combination inflects nouns with the meaning of each and every referent of the noun undergoes the action of the verb. Kaalgoalgo on umeh di. Every day he goes there. Kabulabulan an umali da. They come every month. Kabigabigat on imme da nah Templo ya hi kabalebale an e muntuttuduh mipanggep ke Jesus an hiyah Kriston mangipaptok hi tagu. (Acts 5:42) Every day they go to the Temple and from house to house to teach about Jesus who is the Christ who cares for people. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.2 - Noun affixes.)

ka-₁ 1nominalizer. this prefix nominalizes an adjective or verb. Handih kaittay na ya ammunay Clinic an wadad Kiangan. When he was young/little, there was only a clinic in Kiangan. Nah kadakol di tatagu ya mahapul an halipat-an di pihhu With the large number of people, you have to be careful with your money. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even very dangerous/frightening to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.3 - Derivational affixes.) 2dervN. the affix renominalizes a noun, changing the meaning. Manomnom kun handi keh kau-unga mi ya wadaday nihag-on kediyen ob-ob hi o-ongal an batu I remember that when we were children (lit. childhood), there were big rocks beside the same spring Nipalpun dih kagolang na inggana kediyen kimmat-agu ya maphod di pangi-ena. From the time of his childhood until he was a young man, his nature was good.

kaatna int. 1how many; how much; the question implies that the number or quantity is unknown to the interrogator. Kaatnay toon mu? How old are you (lit. how many years)? Kaatna tun igattang mun dotag? How much is this meat you are selling? (sem. domains: 8.1 - Quantity.) 2what; may be used to question the features of something, e.g. size. Kaatnay kadukke na? What is its length?

kakon-ana (sp. var. kon-ana) int. when; an interrogative pronoun used to ask about the time of an event or action. Kakon-anay pangialian dah bulwatik. When will they bring my clothes? Kakon-anat ahiyu nomnomon di ustu? When will you adequately think about it? Em hanhanan ten kakon-anay pangayan da ad Manila. Go ask him when they will go to Manila. (sem. domains: 8.4.3 - Indefinite time.)

kami pers. we exclusive; first person, plural, exclusive pronoun; member of Set 2 subject; cross-referenced by verbal affix. Maid kami hidi handi hilong. We were not there last night. Nun-ampuyo kamin am-in an binabai. All of us women wore the Ifugao skirt. Maphod te immaliy dakol hi lugan ot ume kami. Luckily there were many rides so that we could go. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

kanomnoman (der. of nomnom) nom. to have an understanding of facts or information in the mind; the state or condition of knowing truth about the world; knowledge; wisdom. Maid di ena id-um hi kanomnoman ya mumbalin tan kay hiyyahiyya. You will add nothing to your wisdom and one might become proud and boastful. ka‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.2.3 - Know.)

kanon 1nom. any substance that can be eaten, plant or animal, that can sustain life. Himmalaman dan e nungkompay hi kanon di kabayu da. They had gone out early to cut grass (food) for their horses. Hana mon gawgawa di inay-ayyam na ot ingganay linutun inaonan hi Magappid di kanon da. She played with that duck until Aunt Magappid had cooked their food. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to eat something specific. Nangamung di pinhod mun kanon. It depends on what you like to eat. Kinan dan am-in nan ginatang na. They ate everything he bought. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring object toward agent. (sem. domains: 5.2.2 - Eat.)

katbalan (der. of tobal) nom. refers to one who is respected, approved or honored. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman te kibalinana ya kaddakaddangyana te dakol di longonah nuwang ya babuy. This so-called prestige feast hagabi entitles a man to due respect (by his co-villagers) because its very performance shows that he is very rich indeed since he can afford to butcher many carabao and pigs. (sem. domains: 4.5.5 - Honor.)

Katolik comm. refers to anyone or anything related to the Roman Catholic Christian religion. E nakimisa te Katolic. He went to mass because he is a Catholic. (sem. domains: 4.9.7 - Religious organization, 4.9.5 - Practice religion.)

kay da nadulhukan nan bakbak (id. of bakbak) very noisy (lit. like they watered the frogs).

kay dibdib ya abun munlau (id. of dibdib) all talk and no action (lit. only passing by like the wind).

kay kayu palpal (id. of palpal) You-all are very noisy. (lit. You-all are like big-belly-frogs.)

kay nomnom di buding (id. of bud’ing) idiom. to be dumb, not smart (lit. to have the mind of a bird). Hiyay kay nomnom di buding. As for him, he is stupid (it’s like he has the mind of a bird).

kayngot 1intrans. a facial expression of firm lips along with the gesture of nodding the head from time to time that gives authority to speech. Nadan udum an mungkaykayngot an kumali ya dakdakol di mundongol ke dida. Those people who speak very authoritatively have more people who will listen to them. Nakayngot di pungkalina. His speaking is authoritative. muN‑/nuN‑, na‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. (sem. domains: 3.5.6.1 - Gesture.) 2trans. to give a signal to a previous agreement by nodding of head. Kinayngotanak an ume kami mo. He signaled to me by nodding his head that it was time to leave. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

kayu pers. you plural; second person, plural, Set 2 subject pronouns; cross-referenced by verbal affixes. Ume kayu nah payo an mangdut. You all go to the ricefield and gather snails. “Bumangun kayu mon iimbabalek, kanan inada. “Wake up, children,” their mother said. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

ke dadiye (n. ph. of dadiye) dem. those; the plural form of kediye, a member of Set 5 demonstrative pronouns. <The determiner ke or its allomorph n that attaches to a preceding word that ends in a vowel must co-occur.> Lintunan am-in di bittuwon an hay udum ke dadiye ya Bear, Orion, Pleiades takon nadan bittuwon wadah nangappit hi south di kabunyan. (Job 9:9) He created all the stars, some of those are Bear, Orion, Pleiades even those stars that are in the southern direction of the sky. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

ke dakami (n. ph. of dakami) pers. us; first person, plural exclusive; member of Set 4 direct or indirect object pronouns; non-cross-referenced by verbal affixes. <The determiner ke or its allomorph n must co-occur.> Makulug, ina. Tinibo mi. Nakihummangan pay ke dakami, kanak. “It’s true, mother! I saw her. She even talked to us,” I said. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

ke dakayu (n. ph. of dakayu) pers. you, plural; second person, plural pronoun; member of Set 4 direct or indirect object pronouns; non-cross-referenced by verbal affixes. <The determiner ke or its allomorph n that attaches to a preceding word that ends in a vowel must co-occur.> “Ot nganney inat nan dakayu?” kanan ina. “Then what did she do to you?” mother said. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

ke danae (n. ph. of danae) dem. those; the plural form of the kenae member of Set 5 demonstrative pronouns. <The determiner ke or its allomorph n that attaches to a preceding word that ends in a vowel must co-occur.> Ya ammunay linalakin mangan ke danae. (Numbers 18:10b) Only men can eat those things. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

ke datuwe (n. ph. of datuwe) dem. these; the plural form of the ketuwe member of Set 5 demonstrative pronouns. <The determiner ke or its allomorph n that attaches to a preceding word that ends in a vowel must co-occur.> Ammunah APU DIOS an damanan mangat ke datuwe. (Isaiah 40:12e) It is only God who is able to do these things. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

ke dida (n. ph. of dida) pers. them; third person, plural pronoun; member of Set 4 direct or indirect object pronouns. <The determiner ke or its allomorph n that attaches to a preceding word that ends in a vowel must co-occur.> Himmawwang nadan tatagun e manggop ke dida ot pumpate da dida. The raiding people came out and started to attack them to kill them. Kinalinan diday aton da ot un-unudon da. He told them what to do and they followed it. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

ke dita (n. ph. of dita) pers. us-two; first person, dual pronoun, member of Set 4 direct or indirect object pronouns. <The determiner ke or its allomorph n that attaches to a preceding word that ends in a vowel must co-occur.> (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

ke ditaku (n. ph. of ditaku) pers. us-all; first person, plural inclusive; member of Set 4 direct and indirect object pronouns; non-cross-referenced by verbal affixes. <The determiner ke or its allomorph n that attaches to a preceding word that ends in a vowel must co-occur.> Idat nan ditaku kanu nan ohan babuy. According to him, he is giving us a pig. Kanan da kanuy “Iday, dahdiy nangat hitun hiya, etaku ot te ipanuyu da man ke ditaku. According to him, they said “My, who did this to him? Let’s go because they might blame it on us.” (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

ke ha-on (n. ph. of ha-on) pers. me; first person, singular personal pronoun; a member of Set 4 direct and indirect object pronouns; the members of this objective set are not cross-referenced by the verbal affix. <The determiner ke or its allomorph n that attaches to a preceding word that ends in a vowel must co-occur.> Kalyom ke hiyan nangamung ak an mumbayad ya ipainilam ke ha-on. Tell him that I will pay it back and he should let me know. Dahdi nan kimmalin ha-on? Who was that who talked to/called me? (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

ke he-a (n. ph. of he-a) pers. you, singular; second person, singular pronoun; member of Set 4 direct or indirect object pronouns; the members of this objective set are not cross-referenced by the verbal affix. <The determiner ke or its allomorph n that attaches to a preceding word that ends in a vowel must co-occur.> Duntukon daka hin adika ume nah nangitud-akak ke he-a. I will sock you if you will not go to where I sent you. Hay oha bo ya nomnomom an ongal di baddang Apu Dios ke he-a ot maischolar ka. Another thing is, remember that God helped you greatly to become a scholar. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

ke hiya (n. ph. of hiya) pers. him, her, it; third person, singular pronoun; member of Set 4 direct or indirect object pronouns; the members of this objective set are not cross-referenced by the verbal affix. <The determiner ke or its allomorph n that attaches to a preceding word that ends in a vowel must co-occur.> Umamowak ke hiya. I am so jealous of him. Kalyom ke hiyan nangamung ak an mumbayad ya ipainilana ke ha-on. Tell him that I will pay it back and he should let me know. Ta mundadaan dah ibaddang dan hiya. So that they will prepare whatever they will give to help him. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

kediye dem. that; a member of Set 5 demonstrative pronouns; refers to a time or place distant from both speaker and hearer. Kediye ya himpulut onom di toon ku. At that time, I was sixteen years old. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) kediyen kediyey

kediyen (kediye) dem. that; the form is based on kediye, a member of Set 5 demonstrative pronouns and the linker an. Kediyen himbatangan ya imme nan talak Pamolka ot mada-idai ya mungkibangngad an panaspasana That afternoon, Famorca’s jeep went and after a while, it returned going very fast. Abuna tuy dingngol ku mipanggep kediyen naat. That is all I have heard about that case. Manomnom kun handi keh kau-unga mi ya wadaday nihag-on kediyen ob-ob hi o-ongal an batu I remember that when we were children, there were big rocks beside the same spring. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

kenae dem. that; a member of Set 5 demonstrative pronouns; the form occurs without determiners or linkers only at the end of sentences; it has endophoric back reference in context. Nangamung kayun munnomnom kenae. (1 Corinthians 4:21b) It is up to you (your responsibility) to think about that. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) kenaen kenaey

kenaen (kenae) dem. that; the form is based on kenae, a member of Set 5 demonstrative pronouns and the linker an. Hinaen indat yu ya paddungnay hi Apu Dios nangidatan yu ya mun-am-amlong bon dakayu kenaen inat yu. (Philippians 4:18b) What you gave is like it was God that you gave it to and he is happy with you for what you did. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

ketuwe dem. this; a member of Set 5 demonstrative pronouns; has endophoric reference; refers to a time or place that has previously been introduced into the communication; may also refer to a previously introduced object when the agent-subject has been moved to the pre-verb position; the only time the form refers without a co-occurring determiner or linker is when it occurs at the end of a clause or sentence. Pakannomnomon yuy mipanggep ketuwe ten mibakbakillang kayu nah hilong. (Psalm 4:4c) Think carefully about this when you are lying down at night. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

ketuwen dem. this; the form is based on ketuwe, a member of Set 5 demonstrative pronouns and the linker an. Ketuwen algo, umali ka. On this day, you come. Ketuwen algo ya ume taku. On this day we are leaving. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

ki- -an 1dervN. this circumfix functions to derive a lexical nominalization. Man-uket mungastu takuh pun-iskul yu ya kiphodan yuh udum hi algo. The reason we spend money for your studies is it is for your own good in the future. Kibalinana ya kaddakaddangyana te dakol di longona. Its very performance shows that he is very rich indeed since he can afford to butcher many. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.3 - Derivational affixes.) 2top. PASS.T-P Daanay kitanoman di bulhe? Where will beans be planted?

kipa- -an pass. this circumfix is a lexical nominalizer with a causative component. Napiliyak bon mangipainilan am-in hi taguh innun di kipaannungan nan planun ugge ni-an impainilan Apu Dios an nunlutu hi am-in. (Ephesus 3:9) I was chosen to make known to all people the fulfillment of the plan that God who created everything had not yet made known. Mu takon di athidiy udum ya maan-anlaak te hay importante ke ha-on ya hay kipainnilaan nan tuttudu mipanggep ke Kristo...(Philippi 1:18) But even though it’s like that with some (teachers), I am happy because what is important to me is that the teaching about Christ is being made known... (sem. domains: 9.2.9.3 - Derivational affixes.)

kittong intrans. to make knocking sound with shoe heels on hard surface. Inilam an hiya nan mangali te mungkittong di apatut na. You know that he is the one coming because his shoes make a knocking sound on the path. muN‑/nuN‑. 1D Sounds. (sem. domains: 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.)

kombo (fr. var. takombo) adjunct. an expression used to indicate that something is not a problem; never mind; it’s okay. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

kon-ana (sp. var. of kakon-ana) int. when; what time. Kon-ana di aliyan da? When will they come? (sem. domains: 8.4.3 - Indefinite time.)

kon₁ int. question marker, marks a yes-no question, usually used for confirming; may also be used as a rhetorical question marker. Kon pinhod mun e makih-od? Do you want to join in waiting? “Kon matiboy bibiyo?” kanan bon ina. “Can you see a fairy?” mother said. Kon tuwali waday kimmadangyan hi tugal? Was there ever one who became a rich man through gambling? “Kay na ot kanan di Lata. Ina, kon wada damdamay nangang-angam ketuwen bibiyo?” kanak. “It was like she said Lata. Mother, have you also seen this fairy?” I asked. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.5 - Ask.)

konoknong₁ (infl. of konong) trans. to estimate; to approximate. Konoknongom di alam, ta adi mahawwal. Estimate how much you’ll get so that it won’t be too much. Deket konoknongom an maal-algo ya munha-ang ka. When you approximate (lit. estimate) that it’s noontime, then cook. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 3.2.5 - Opinion.)

konoknong₂ trans. to control oneself, in speech or action. Konoknongom di pungkalim. Control your speech. (You better be careful what you say.) Impoltante punkonoknong hi adol. It’s important to have self-control. ‑on/‑in‑, puN‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: kolokla, mahang-anon. (sem. domains: 4.3.6 - Self-controlled.)

konong₁ 1trans. to give an offering to a Maknongan god; sacrifice to a Maknongan god. Nganne iknong nadan mumbaki? What will the shaman offer? i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct action toward an obvject. (sem. domains: 4.9.5.5 - Offering, sacrifice.) 2comm. the name of the offertory and divination rite, a part of a religious ritual. der. Maknongan der. Maknongan der. mangnong der. mungkonong

konong₂ trans. to estimate the amount of something. Bukalom nan binokbok ya konoknongom di kadakol di punhagmuk mu. Crush the binoknok leaves into powder and estimate how much you need to sprinkle. (sem. domains: 3.2.2.3 - Evaluate, test.) infl. konoknong

koy’e trans. to loosen the knot of something that is tied. Koyayon yu nan gakod di apatut na. Loosen his shoelace. Koyayom nan balikit mu. Loosen your belt. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 7.5.2.4 - Remove, take apart.)

koynon sta. for cloth to shrink. Nakoynon nan payung ot mumbibinnat. The cloth of the umbrella shrank and so it’s pulling away from the sides. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.1.4.3 - Decrease.)

ku pers. 1I; first person, singular pronoun; member of Set 1 non-cross-referenced subject pronouns. <Morphophonology: When a verb ends in a vowel, the pronoun attaches to the verb, and the vowel ‘u’ is dropped.> Ang-angok di manayo. I will look at the dancers. Pinpinhod kuy makihamul. I enjoy going to parties (lit. feasts). (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2my; first person, singular, member of Set 1 possessive personal pronouns. <Morphophonology: When a possessed noun ends in a vowel, the pronoun attaches to the noun, and the vowel ‘u’ is dropped.> Tudok ku hinae. That is my letter.

kukkug trans. to knock on a door; to rap on a door. Kukkugom ni-an di panto ta ahika hunggop. Knock at the door first before you enter. Kinugkug na ya maid di mangibukat. He knocked on the door and no one opened it. Mungkugkug kat ibukat da. You knock so that they will open up. E mangukug hi gatanganah ilukut. He is going to knock (to wake up someone) so he can buy cigarretes. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, maN‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.)

kumpulmi (sp. var. kumpulna) dem. refers to an indefinite time, place or thing; any. Hin itikod nan mumbaki ya wadanwaday takut na an kumpulmin tiempu ya mate. If he stopped doing the rituals, his fear is that he might die anytime. Indefinite pronoun. Sim: logom. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.2 - Indefinite pronouns.)

kumpulna (sp. var. of kumpulmi) pers. anything, anyone, anytime. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.2 - Indefinite pronouns.)

kung-i intrans. to make a snorting sound like a horse. Ya mungkung-i da hin dingngol da tangguyub. (Job 39:24-25) And they (horses) snort when they hear the horn sound. (sem. domains: 1.6.4.3 - Animal sounds.)

labanon (infl. of laban) trans. to fight against. Labanona nadan namaten amana. He is fighting against those who killed his father. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile -Touch contact. (sem. domains: 4.8.2 - Fight.)

labbunon (der. of labbun) trans. to guess. Labbunom ya di ngadan ku. Guess my name. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 9.4.4.6.1 - Think so.)

lah-o trans. to fail to do something, often related to something that had been promised. Adim anhan ilah-o an e manibon ina. Please do not fail to go and visit my mother. Kananay umali yaden inlah-o na bo. He said he would come but he failed again. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 4.3.1.2.1 - Below standard, 4.3.4.2.1 - Hinder.)

libod trans. to wind one thing around another. Ilibod mu nan gakod nah kaiw. You wind the rope around the tree. Libodam nan hapang hi gigit. Wind a wire around the branch. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3E Move an object directionally. Sim: lipot, bodab’od. (sem. domains: 7.5.2 - Join, attach.)

ligau comm. rice winnower woven form bamboo or rattan strips. Ibanom nan hinamal nah ligau. Put the cooked rice in the winnower. (sem. domains: 6.7 - Tool, 6.7.7 - Container.)

lingling trans. 1to forget. Adim linglingon nan tugun amam. Do not forget the advice of your father. Nalingling ku nan libluk kinali imbangngad kuh bale. I forgot my book so I returned home. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. Sim: kal-iw. (sem. domains: 3.2.6.1 - Forget.) 2to ignore when attention is focused on something else. ‑on. Language Of Borrowing: Central Ifugao.

lonop comm. moon, last crescent; crescent-shape. (sem. domains: 1.1.1.1 - Moon.)

lunok intrans. to sink in mud. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.5 - Move down.)

ma- -an 1sta. non-past stative circumfix form. An adika maagangan? Don’t you ever feel hungry? Mapopotangan ka ya abuh di, inhumang amana. You will just be standing in the sun.” answered his father. Maanlaanak an mundawdaw-en nah bungana on kinkinnan ku. I enjoyed picking and eating the fruit. Sim: na- -an. 2pass. non-past passive form; focuses the site with Class 3 verb roots. Maha-adan nan basket hi makan. The basket will have some food placed in it. Mabalbalan di ha-ikan. The doormat can be washed.

ma-₂ pass. this prefix derives the passive form of Class 4 verbal roots; non-past tense. Matbal da mo peman! Now they are highly respected indeed. Adina anhan dongolon di kalin nan inayana an kananay ahida mahmok di imbabale da. He did not heed the protests of his wife who said that their children would be pitied. Pangalim nin kattog di babale nadan udum bon matibo mo bokon ta datuwe nan kalyon an bapor. You think what can be seen are houses but these are what they call ships. Sim: na-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

ma-al-algo (der. of algo) sta. 1the time when the sun is highest in the sky; noontime. Etaku mangan te ma-al-algo. Lets go eat because it’s noontime. ma‑, CVC‑. (sem. domains: 8.4.1.2.3 - Time of the day.) 2refers to the time when the sun has moved past its peak; past noontime. Na-al-algo mo yaden maid pay an umali. It’s past noon and yet, he hasn’t come. na‑ CVC‑.

ma-ma-idan (der. of maid) exispred. intensified negated existential predicate; there is none, not any. Deket kaspangarigan ta waday makahhapul mu ya ma-ma-idan di pihhum ya umanamut ka. Now, just in case you have an urgent need and you don’t have any money, you return home. Naminghan ya maka-al-algo bon ma-ma-idan tataguh kalata. Once, it was noontime and there was not a single person on the road. CVC‑ ‑an.

maal-algo (der. of algo) sta. noon; midday. Deket maal-algo ya em ihap-e nan page ta mamag-anan. At noontime, spread the palay so that it will dry. Dimmatong dah maal-algo ot ipayu dan e mampap mu tultulluy dimpap da. They arrived at noon and went directly to the river to catch crabs, but they only caught a few. Tuwe da te mungkamal-algo. Here they come because it is almost noon. ma‑ CVC‑. (sem. domains: 8.4.1.2.3 - Time of the day.)

madinol (der. of dinol) sta. to be confident; related to trusting in something or someone. Madinol ka hin maid di binuhul mu. You are confident if you have no enemies. ma‑. (sem. domains: 3.4.1.5 - Confident.)

mahakit di nomnom. (id. of nomnom) to have hurt feelings or to be troubled (lit. painful mind). Mahakit di nomnom na. She has hurt feelings.

mahang-anon advpred. to control; to be moderate in what one does. Mahang-anom di naihon kalikalim. Control your bad talk. Mahang-anom di inum ta adika mabutong. Drink moderately so that you will not get drunk. Manner. Sim: konoknong, kolokla.

mahanhannot (infl. of hannot) advpred. to repeatedly exchange things; to take turns. Mahanhannot di umeh bale da. People take turns in going to their house. Mu nahanhannot day inayagan dan mamakko. But they exchanged repeatedly the mediums that they called for. ma‑/na‑ CVC‑. Manner.

maid 1negative predicate. 1.1negpred. a negative predication; the negative opposite of the existential predicate. Maid di inat kuh gaga-iho. I did not do anything bad. Adi mabalin an eta mabiyag hin maid di ustuh ngunuh pangal-an hi pumbiyagan. It isn’t possible to live if we don’t have adequate work to provide our livelihood. (sem. domains: 9.4.6.1 - No, not.) 1.2negpred. negative predication expressing the non-existence of an agent. Maid di mun-ay-ayyam hi banting. Nobody will play with matches. Ek ang-angon, munhidhid-ipak te nahilong ya- maid hi Lammooy I went to see, I was straining my eyes because it was dark, Lammooy was not around. 1.3negpred. negative predication expressing the non-existence of a thing or possession. Maid di pihuk. I have no money. Mungngunu kayu te maid di poppog di tiempo. Work, because time is without end. Maid moy ena igattang. He had nothing more to sell. Maid, tumakut kamin e mangala mu maka-i-imin nangidat ot alan mi mo. “Nothing. We were afraid to take the candy but she was smiling as she gave it so we took it.” 2sta. to become non-existent; mama-id, the reduplication expresses the process of disappearance, i.e. becoming non-existent. Athidi bon gulatnat mama-id am-in di mumbaki ta hiya ya abuy matdaan. Like that also, if there are no longer pagan priests except for him. (sem. domains: 9.1.1.1 - Exist.) der. ma-idon der. ma-ma-idan der. mama-id id. Ma-ma-idan di nitaguwak. ph. v. maid di poppog na

maid di poppog na (ph. v. of maid) predicates that there is no end to an action or event. Maid di poppog nay diklamun datuwen tatagu ke ha-on. There is no end to these people complaining to me. Maid di poppog nay omnawan di tagu. There is no end to people desiring things.

maid nomnom na. (id. of nomnom) an idiom referring to someone with poor judgment; someone who does not adequately consider the consequences of actions or decisions (lit. has no mind). Maid nomnom na. He’s a dimwit.

Maid nomnomon hi naatuwam te hin uggem inlingotan. (say. of lingot) the saying is a subtle way of telling someone that they are lazy and can't complain about being tired (lit. you cannot think about being tired if you have not sweated). Maid nomnomon hi naatuwam te hin uggem inlingotan. You can’t be tired if you have not worked hard.

maka- -an pass. this circumfix inflects the passive form of Class 5 verbal roots with the meaning that the result of an action will be very satisfactory; intensifier; non-past tense. Makahiggidan nan dot-al. The floor will be well-swept. Sim: naka- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

makaC2- -an mod. this circumfix encodes an intensified passive; non-past tense; cross-references the subject. <The second consonant of the root is geminated.> Kalyok hituwe te ad uwani ya makaawwatan takuy ine-en di pamhod te hidiyey impatibotibon Jesus hi pangi-ena. (1 Juan 2:8b) I say this because now we fully understand the way of love because that is what Jesus continuously revealed by his customary way. Sim: nakaC2- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

makadinnol (infl. of dinol) sta. to be intensely trusting; carefree. Kanan day dakol di mangalana mu makadinnolak pe te maid di buhul ku. They say there are many prowlers but I am carefree because I have no enemies. maka‑ ‑inn‑.

makaiw comm. 1refers to the western part of Kiangan; refers to the Tinoc area, also referred to as the Kalanguya area. Imme dad makaiw. They went to the western part of Kiangan. 2from the Tinoc area. [Some people consider this term as derogatory.] Kon imakaiw hi amam? Is your father from the Tinoc area? i‑.

maki- -an participatory. this circumfix encodes the concept of participation in an action or activity; the object referent is cross-referenced; non-past tense. Paddungnay naatu kan nakibuttikan hi tatagu mu ahi namam-a moy inatum ten makibuttikan kah kakabayu. (Jeremiah 12:5b) It’s like you were tired joining in racing people but you would be more tired if you joined in racing horses. Sim: maki-, naki- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

maki-₁ mod. this prefix encodes a participatory concept; it indicates that the agent subject is participating with others in an action or activity; non-past tense. Tibom bot adika makidkid-um hi fraternities te maid di hilbin dadiye. See to it also that you don’t join any fraternity groups because they are useless. Hinumang inada, “Te ume kayu moh iskul. Maki-e kan manong mu. Their mother answered, “Because you are going to school. You will go with your brother.” Matukatukal ka an e makitugatugal te mapat-al ya hilong di puntutugalan yu. You stay awake to join in gambling because your gambling goes on night and day. Sim: naki-; Sim: maki- -an, naki- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

Maknongan₁ (der. of konong) comm. the most supreme of the Ifugao gods. [In the traditional religion, the name means ‘one to whom sacrifice is due’.] Oha ya abuy Maknongan nadan mangulug ke Jesus. There is only one God for those who believe in Jesus. Syn: Apu Dios. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.)

Maknongan₂ (der. of konong) comm. a class of gods in the traditional religion that deserve sacrifices and offerings. [Usually thought of as the gods of reproduction; the Supreme God, a concept accepted by the Ifugao following the introduction of Christianity.] (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture)

mal-i trans. to turn anger on an innocent party and do harm to him. [The story of the stoning of Stephen is in Acts 7:54-60.] Immal-i dan Stephen di boh-ol da ot tugmilan da. They turned their anger on Stephen and stoned him. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.3 - Angry.)

malaganga comm. snake, white and green poisonous species. Linumbag di kinalat nan malaganga. The part bitten by the malaganga-snake is swollen. Gen: ulog.

malmalyoy inga nah punnomnom na (id. of malyo) worries a lot about problems (lit. his ears are withering from his thinking).

malumman di nomnom (id. of nomnom) to have become crazy (lit. transformed/changed mind).

mami 1comm. Chinese or Japanese noodles flavored with pork, beef or chicken, onions and vegetables. Nunha-ang da hi mami. They cooked Chinese noodles. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2intrans. to eat noodles. Eda nummami hi kad-an da Sion. They went to eat mami-noodles at Sion's place. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Chinese.

man tuwali ot adjunct. denotes that without a doubt what is said is true, a strong assertion; certainly. Man tuwali ot nawotwot da te maid di payo da. Without doubt, they are poor because they have no ricefield. Man tuwali ot maid di bain mu kinali athinay at-attom. The truth is you have no shame; that’s why you are doing that. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 9.6.3.2 - Markers of emphasis.)

maN- 1TACR. the prefix encodes a non-past tense and cross-references a topicalized subject-agent; it co-occurs with Classes 4 and 5 verbal roots. <Morphophonology: The N in the form symbolizes a nasal that assimilates to the point of articulation of the first consonant of the root, and then, reduces the consonant. If the first consonant of the root is followed by the ‘o’ vowel, the vowel will also be reduced.> Eda manibo nadan nangipaptok ketuweh udum an makan mu maid. Those in charge tried to look for more food but nothing was left. Himmawwang nadan tatagun e manggop ke dida ot pumpate da dida. The raiding people came out and started to attack them to kill them. Da Juan ke Maira din mange. It’s Juan and Maria who are passing by. Sim: naN-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2asp. the prefix encodes a present continuative aspect; it co-occurs with roots that have an innate punctiliar aspect. Manatong kami nah ohan bale ya namodwongak an nanibo nah ohan lalaki. As we were arriving near one of the houses, I was surprised to see a man. Hay kalyona ya, kediyen hilong an manganamut, an gawan mon di hilong... He explained to us that the night before while he was on his way home at about midnight... (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.)

maN- -an v. this circumfix topicalizes and cross-references a time, place or affected object; non-past tense. Ya ahi miweley adol mut mamaptangan nah mapat-al ya matuntuningan nah hilong. (Jeremiah 36:30b) And your body will be thrown away so that it will be exposed to the heat of sunshine and the cold of the night. Sim: naN- -an.

manangpa intrans. 1refers to being harmless or innocent of wrong. Wadadah tun dakayuy manangpa. There are those of you here who are innocent. (sem. domains: 8.3.7 - Good.) 2lacking in sophistication and knowledge about the world; naive.

mangi- top. this prefix cross-references a topicalized agent-subject; co-occurs with Class 3 verbal roots; non-past tense. Mihaad nan hagabi nah dola ta nangamung mo nan kon hagabi an ahi mangip-iphod. The hagabi-bench is placed in the yard and it is up to the owner to have it finished (lit. made-good). Kediyen algon pumbungbungan da ya immali on inhinyeron mangiha-ad hi bungbung. That day when they blasted the rocks, an engineer came to place the dynamite sticks. Sim: nangi-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

mangidinol (infl. of dinol) trans. refers to the person who trusts in someone or something. Ya nadan mangidinol ke hiya ya adida muntutuyuh nundinolan dan hiya. (1Pedro 2:6c) And as for those who are trusting in him, they will not change their minds about trusting in him. mangi‑.

mangipa- caus. this prefix encodes a causative agent that is topicalized and cross-referenced; non-past tense. Hay pundallanan ina di mangipaatun hiya. It is mother’s walking that makes her tired. Hanan mittuluy mangipataddog hanadah u-unga. It is the teacher who will have the children stand. Nganney mangipadukke hi buuk? What will make the hair grow long? Sim: nangipa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

mangipainila (infl. of inila) caus. refers to someone who makes something known. Adi kayu bumain an mangipainila an mangulug kayun Jesus. Don’t be ashamed to make known that you believe in Jesus. mangipa‑/nangipa‑. (sem. domains: 3.2.3 - Know.)

mangipaN- TACR. this prefix cross-references a topicalized agent and encodes a distributive modality of multiple objects; non-past tense. Kon bokon he-a, APU DIOS, di nangamung an mangipangapput hi pinhod mun pangapputon? (Psa. 3:8) Isn’t it you, LORD, who is responsible for causing the victory of those whom you want to win? Sim: nangipaN-.

mangnong (der. of konong) nom. refers to the shaman who performs a sacrificial rite for the purpose of divination or appeasement. maN‑/naN‑. (sem. domains: 4.9.5.5 - Offering, sacrifice.)

manno adjunct. expression of necessity; you’d better do it; must; have to; said as a threat or warning. Manno op-opya ka te uggem inila di maat. You’d better keep quiet because you do not know what happened! Attitudinal.

manogpat (der. of hogpat) trans. to gather fresh canegrass; used for trellis, building a fence, etc. Manogpat kah pun-alad taku tuh dola. Go and cut fresh canegrass for us to build a fence around the yard. maN‑/naN‑.

manomnom (infl. of nomnom) intrans. to bring something to mind; to be reminded of something; remember. Manomnom kun handi keh kau-unga mi ya wadaday nihag-on kediyen ob-ob hi o-ongal an batu. I remember that when we were children, there were big rocks by that spring. An manomnom mu din golang dih immali kan e nangidung-on dakami? Do you remember the baby when you came to visit us? ma‑. (sem. domains: 3.2.6 - Remember.)

manong (sp. var. of manung) comm. refers to an older male sibling; also, used as a respectful address. Hinumang inada, “Te ume kayu moh iskul. Maki-e kan manong mu.” Their mother answered, “Because you are going to school. You will go with your brother.” (sem. domains: 4.1.9.1.3 - Brother, sister.)

manuttudu (id. of tudu) an idiom that refers to a person who acts as though he knows everything; a know-it-all (lit. one who teaches).

mapukyahan (id. of pukya) an idiom meaning that something that has been done in secret or deceitfully will become known (lit. will be uncovered). Mapukyahan di inat mu. What you did will be known.

matbal (infl. of tobal) pass. to be honored; to be respected or approved of. Matbal da mo peman. They will certainly now be honored. ma‑.

matupu di hubil (id. of hubil) an idiom that means one is not talkative, very quiet (lit. dull lips) Matupu di hubil na. She is not talkative.

mi pers. 1we exclusive; first person, plural, exclusive; member of Set 1 non-cross-referenced subject. Tinibo mi an hay nidadaan ya abu ya duwan palangganan hinamal. We saw that what was prepared for us was two basins of rice. Imbaga min Mr. Hohulin di “An nganney usal diye? We asked Mr. Hohulin “What is the use of that?” (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2our, exclusive; first person, plural exclusive, possessive. Mamtik ot mihupdugak an hinunggop hi bale mi. I ran, and then I stumbled as I entered our house. Umala kamih kanon mi mo. We got our food then.

mi- pass. this prefix encodes the passive of Class 3 verbal roots; non-past tense. Hanadan bibiyo ya miha-ad da kanuh liyang, nah buddalan di ob-ob. These bibiyo or pinading accordingly stay or live in caves, near the springs. Da ke Magappid ya miha-ad da nah dommang nan boble. Magappid lived across the valley from their village. Wada da boy tetendaan hitun kay ad Cubao mu nangingina day migattang. There are stores like those in Cubao but what they sell is more expensive. Sim: ni-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

mi- -an pass. this circumfix encodes the non-past passive for Class 3 verbal roots. Idawawa yuy takle yu ta midatan kayu. Reach out your hands and you will be given some. Sim: ni- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

midinol (infl. of dinol) sta. to be trustworthy. Ya niptok ya midinol nadan tuttudum. (Psalms 119:138) And your teachings are perfectly correct and trustworthy.

mipa- caus. this affix encodes both passive and causative, non-past tense. Nalgom di pinhod mun gattangon mipalpun nah kaitayan ingganah kaongalan. There is anything that you want to buy, from (beginning with) the smallest item to the largest. Mu gapu te madinol takun ahi taku ang-angon di kipaannungana ya anusan takun munho-ho-od ingganah nipaannung. (Romans 8:25) But the reason is because we trust that we will see its fulfillment, we will patiently continue waiting until it has been fulfilled. Sim: nipa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.3 - Derivational affixes.)

mipa- -an pass. this circumfix has the features of passive, causative, topicalization; non-past tense. Hay am-in nan nitudok nah kalin Apu Dios ya mipaannungan. As for everything that is written in the word of God, it will be fulfilled. Sim: nipa- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

miswa comm. Chinese noodles made from mung beans; Chinese kind of food made of flour; looks like firm threads of flour. Miswa di ingkamo da nah dotag. They mixed Chinese mung noodles with the pork. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) Language Of Borrowing: Chinese.

mo 1present time. 1.1adv. at the present time; now. Mangan taku mo. We will eat now./Let’s eat now. Miha-ad nan hagabi nah dola ta nangamung mo nan kon hagabi an ahi mangip-iphod. The hagabi-bench is placed in the yard and it is now up to the owner to finish it. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.) 1.2adv. to continue from the present moment; from now on. He-a mo di gumatang. From now on, you’ll have to do the shopping. 2adv. before the present moment; already. Maid nan em hadhad-on te imme mo. The one you are waiting for is not here because he already left. Dimmatong kami ad Lagawe ya nipalpu mo tuwaliy parada. When we reached Lagawe, the parade had already started. comp. daana mo

moppe (sp. var. muppe) adjunct. expresses a ‘now’ point on a time line when there is a restoration of a state of affairs or condition. Mada-idaih ya pakayahyaak moppe te impainumanak hi liting. After a while, I could breathe again because she gave me a drink of water. Attitudinal.

mu₂ pers. 1you; second person, singular pronoun; member of Set 1 non-cross-referenced subject. <Morphophonology: When a verb ends in a vowel, the initial consonant of the pronoun attaches to the verb, and the vowel ‘u’ is dropped.> Nganney itanom mu? What will you plant? Toan ten makulug, mu deket makulug, ikabing mu anhan tun tugun ku. Whether or not this is true, I don’t know, but if it is, you heed my advice. Hi Rosa di ang-angom. Rosa is the one you should look for. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2your; second person, singular, possessive pronoun. <Morphophonology: When a possessed noun ends in a vowel, the initial consonant of the pronoun attaches to the noun, and the vowel ‘u’ is dropped.> I-ang-angam hi bulwatih inam. Look for a dress for your mother. Mun-awis kah ibbam. Persuade your friends. An napai nan talak mu? Has your truck broken down? (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

mumbabalokbok di tokom (id. of balokbok) an idiom that means someone is simply talking nonsense, doesn’t really know what they are talking about (lit. popping of your mouth).

mumbanno (infl. of ban’o) rec. take turns borrowing things. Mumbanno dah bulwati. They lend each other clothes. muN‑/nuN‑.

mumbinbinoltan (infl. of boltan) v. for inherited items to be passed down through more than one generation.

mumbinnaddang (sp. var. mumbaddang) rec. to help one another in work. Munbaddang kayun mangingunu ketuwe. Help each other work on this. Munbibinnaddang taku nah ahiani. Let us help one another during harvest time. muN‑ ‑inn‑/nuN‑ ‑inn‑.

mumbinnoltan (infl. of mumboltan) intrans. take turns in using something or to pass something to the next generation. Mumbinnoltan da nah otak an munggabut. They take turns in using the machete in cutting grass. muN‑ ‑inn‑/nuN‑ ‑inn‑.

mummumutog (der. of mutog) intrans. the increased secretion of mucus due to an infection. Mummumutog te nundanullukan handi hilong. He is having a runny nose because he had been staying in the rain last night. muN‑ + CV/ nuN‑ + CV.

mumpa- caus. 1this prefix encodes a causative agent in the grammatical subject position that is cross-referenced; non-past tense. Kanayun kan mundasal an mumpasalamat kan hiya. Pray always to him, thanking him. Sim: numpa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2used with any locomotion or directional verb root, giving prominence to the direction of movement. Mumpaabat an mumpaed Tinoc di oha ya mumpatpatikid an mumpaed Madannum ta ad Liwon di oha. This is where three main pathways branch out, one going to Tinoc, and ascending, going toward Madannum and one to Liwon.

mumpa- -an trans. this circumfix encodes a causative agent-subject with the cross-referencing of a site-object; non-past tense. [The site-object is often semantically a recipient or beneficiary of the action encoded in the verb.] Ot mundasalak ke he-at mumpabaddangak, APU. (Psalm 30:8) And so I prayed to you so that you will help me, LORD. Mundongol kayun papatul ya dakayun aap-apu te ikantaak hi APU DIOS an Dios Israel ya mumpagangowak hi pundayaw kun hiya! (Hanadan Huwes 5:3) You kings and you leaders listen because I will sing a song to the Lord God, the God of Israel and I will play music in my honoring of him. Sim: numpa- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

mumpaN- TACR. this prefix combination functions to encode an action that will affect more than one object; co-occurs with Class 5 transitive verbs; non-past tense. Adida mun-ap-apu tuh luta ya adida mumpangapyah o-ongal an boble. They will not rule this land, and they will not build big cities. muN‑/nuN‑ + paN‑. Sim: numpaN-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

mumpangi- TACR. this prefix combination functions to encode an action that will affect more than one object; co-occurs with Class 3 transitive verbs; non-past tense. Ot umitud-ak dah mumpangie ke dadiyen tudok hi kabobboble. And they sent them to take that letter to all the cities and villages. Sim: numpangi-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

mumpi- adj > advpred. this prefix is affixed to cardinal numbers to derive an adverbial predicate that means to do the action or activity expressed in the main verb the number of times encoded in the cardinal number; non-past tense. Kanan Jesus di “Kalyok hituwen he-a Pedro an mumpitlun ihaut mun kanam di uggeyak inilan he-at ahi tumalan-uy manuk.” (Luke 22:34) Jesus said “I tell you this, Peter, you will deny me three times saying that you don’t know me before the cock crows.”

mumpuN- TACR. this prefix encodes distributive, i.e. there is a plurality of subjects involved in the action, activity, or experience; it cross-references the subject; non-past tense. Waday mumpundogo ke dida. There are many sick among them. Hinanhanan day ngadan am-in nadan mumpungngunuh di. They asked for the names of all who will work there. Sim: numpuN-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

muN- TACR. 1this prefix encodes non-past tense, durative time aspect; it cross-references the subject and is the default affix for Class 1 verbal roots. <Morphophonology: The velar consonant in coda position assimilates to the point of articulation of the first consonant in the root.> Mungngahngahak yaden mungkaliyak hi bale mi. I gasped for breath and yet I shouted at our house. Itikod mun muntugal an ap-apuk. Stop gambling, grandson. An mun-in-inop ka? Inid-onah nunhina-ob an pukol ku. “Are you dreaming?” She held me by my shoulders. 2non-past tense, signals a durative aspect activity rather than a punctiliar action when co-occuring with a transitive verbal root, cross-references subject. Dakol kami an naamung nah plaza an munhood kamih lugan. Many of us gathered at the plaza to wait for a ride. Ta mundadaan dah ibaddang dan hiya. So that they will prepare whatever they will give to help. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. 3when the prefix co-occurs with the reduplicant CV(C)-, it encodes non-past tense, durative-continuative aspect and cross-references the subject. Deket palhu di pangiha-angam, mahapul an uggan mu ikiwa ta mun-iingngoy lutu na. If a skillet is used, it is necessary to stir the rice from time to time so that it will be cooked evenly. Mumpaypaytuk ya mungkuli. She was jumping up and down and screaming. 4when this affix co-occurs with Class 6 verb roots, it changes statives to durative processes; it encodes non-past tense and cross-references the subject. Mihmihdi nah munhihilong ya nah kakaiw an dakol di hapang nan mahdol di tubuna. It stays in dark places (becoming dark) or in trees with thick, leafy branches. Deket dakol di binokbok na ya mapul-ukan an mumpait. When too much binokbok-yeast is used, the wine will become bitter. 5the prefix derives verbs from nouns; it encodes non-past tense and cross-references the subject. Ya pinhod ot Mayor ya dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo. What the Mayor wanted was that many women would wear the Ifugao skirt. Mumboga da ya mungkail da. They prepare rice and make wine. Adina itikod an mumbaki te wadanwaday takut na an kumpulmin tiempu ya mate. He does not stop doing the rituals because his fear is that he might die at anytime. 6the prefix encodes non-past tense, reflexive and cross-references both the subject and object expressed in a single noun phrase. Mahapul an mamitlu kan mun-amo ohan algo. You have to take a bath three times a day (bathe yourself). Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid themselves outside of the camp.

muN- -an TACR. this circumfix encodes the concept of distributing an action or activity over time, space, or participants; non-past tense; cross-references the agent-subject. Ditakun tatagu ya kulugon takun wadaday mundallanan weno muntayyapan an adi matibo. As for us people, we believe that there are unseen beings who are either walking around or flying in the air. Indai ot ya abut mangalin nahho- wa-el, inang ay, waday munhuhummangan. After awhile, he was approaching the creek, oh my, there were voices conversing. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

muN- -inn- TACR. this circumfix encodes a reciprocal action or activity; non-past tense; cross-references agent-subjects. Mun-innapput da nan hintulang. The two brothers are competing with each other. Sim: nuN- -inn-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

muN- -on trans. this circumfix encodes the notion that there are plural agent-subjects, each one performing the action expressed in the verb, and it cross-references the object referents; non-past tense. Sim: nuN- -on. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

mungkainnawatan (infl. of awat) rec. to understand one another. Ugge da naawatan te adida mungkinnaawatan. They did not understand because they don’t understand each other. Mungkainnawatan da kinali umimiimi dan duwa. They understand each other, that is why they keep on smiling. mungka ‑inn‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.2.4 - Understand.)

mungki- TACR. this prefix encodes the component that the activity or action is distributed among agent-subjects who participate in the activity or action; non-past tense. Datuwe kan duduplanu ya mungkakalpu da mungkidadawwin boble. These airplanes come from faraway places. Mungkitalu nadan allama ya umipit da hin eda howngon di baleda. The crabs hid and pinched the children’s hands when they reached inside their holes to get them. Sim: nungki-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

mungkonong (der. of konong) nom. refers to the shaman who performs the Bubun-ritual marriage ceremony, a divination ritual to determine if the marriage union should continue.

na pers. 1he, she, it: third person, singular pronoun; member of Set 1 non-cross-referenced subject. Ninomnom nay imbagan amanan din hi Antonio. He remembered what his late father, Antonio, told him. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2his, her, its; third person, singular, possessive pronoun. “Om, mama inhumang nadan iimbabale na. “Yes, mama.” her children answered. Maanlaanak an mundawdaw-en nah bunga na on kinkinnan ku. I enjoyed picking and eating its fruit. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) comp. biggatna comp. gapuna

na-ala (sp. var. naala) advpred. 1without any reason; no other requirement; simply. Na-ala ya dinuntukak. Without any reason he hit me. Na-ala ot ikamom nan asukar nah arina ot iha-ang mu. Just mix the sugar with the flour and then cook it. Manner. Sim: bigla, maid maptok, hingkatang, maag. 2refers to an action or happening that is unexpected; suddenly. Na-ala ya inhawwang nah tu. Suddenly he showed himself here.

naadalan (infl. of adal) sta. to be learned; knowledgeable; to have learned a given thing or an area of knowledge. Naadalan mo kinali adi na ipidpidwan aton. He is now knowledgable so he won’t repeat it. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.2.3 - Know.)

nabuluk di nomnom (id. of nomnom) an idiom meaning that a person is thinking of bad and evil things (lit.. the mind is rotten).

nada demonstrative. plural with third person definite reference; shortened form of hanada. Nadan u-ungay paunnaon mun pakanon. Feed those children before hand. Nada bon dakol an ibbada ya nalpu da kanuh Malacanang. As for those, their many companions, it is said, they came from Malacanang.

nadandani (der. of dani) advpred. refers to indefinite intervals of time related to actions or events. Nadandani on immalih tu. Every now and then, he comes here. Nadandani on ingkiwam ta gagalan mabao. Now and then, stir it (the rice) so that it will cool quickly. Nadandani on in-ohnong na ta ang-angona nadan oggan tumul-un dolog nah liting. From time to time, Bugan would stop walking and look at the fish that came to the surface of the water. ma‑/na‑. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.6.6.2 - Sometimes.)

nae demonstrative. shortened form of hinae; that. Ya kanan nadan ap-apuy “Nangamung ka pe, maid di bibiyang min nae.” (Matthew 27:4b) And the leaders said “It’s up to you, we have nothing to do with that.” hinae

nakanginnila (infl. of inila) sta. very knowledgeable; having much knowledge; know-it-all. [Usually used as sarcasm.] Nakanginnila ka. You know everything. Kay ka nakanginnila. It’s as though (you seem to think) that you know everything. nakaN‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 3.2.3 - Know.)

nake dem. that; those; a specialized compound demonstrative form that encodes contrastive reference, singular or plural. <Morphology: This form is a compound of the na formative of a demonstrative pronoun and the contrastive determiner ke.> Hinnatkon di matana! Naken olong na ya natag-e! Her eyes were different. Her nose was high-bridged. Nake an maid di papel na ya magawid. Those without paper, go home. Naken ahibakle ya dakol day umalin bumaddang an mumbayu nan dayyakot. During thanksgiving, many come to help in pounding the sticky rice. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

nalatiyan di nomnom (id. of nomnom) an idiom meaning that the mind is slow in processing what is seen or heard (lit. the mind is rusted).

nalimuy algo (ph. v. of algo) sta. noon; the time when the sun is highest in the sky. Deket maal-algo ya em ihap-e nan page ta mamag-anan. At noontime, spread the rice so that it will dry. Dimmatong dah maal-algo ot ipayu dan e mampap mu tultulluy dimpap da. They arrived at noon and went directly to the river to catch crabs, but they only caught a few. Tuwe da te mungkamal-algo. Here they come because it is almost noon. na‑, mungka‑. (sem. domains: 8.4.1.2.3 - Time of the day.)

namahig an kadangyan ke bo ya igatgattin dita. (id. of gattin) an idiom expressing that rich people are snobs; the rich treat others contemptuously (lit. the rich are always stepping on us).

namga adjunct. 1without any reason; for no reason at all. Namga ya pinalang na ahu. Without any reason he slashed the dog with a machete. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 9.6.2.5 - Cause, 9.6.2.5.1 - Reason.) 2suddenly. Namga ya tinumkuk. Suddenly he shouted. (sem. domains: 8.4.2 - Take time.)

nangpa sta. to be naive, innocent, guileless; a state compared to the trustful characteristic of a child.

nanong an niyug (n. ph. of niyug) nom. young coconut; the fruit is used in various ways in food preparation.

nanong₁ 1intrans. to continue unchanged over a period of time; to remain the same. Adika munnanong an muttatyu na. You will not continue to be his servant. Mahapul an munnanong kayun mumbobleh di. It is necessary that you remain living there. Munnanong ka ni-an hitu. Remain here for a while. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. Sim: ta nangamung, ta inggana, kanayun, latta. (sem. domains: 7.2.7.2 - Stay, remain.) 2advpred. modifies an event, expressing that it is unchanging over a period of time. Ingganad uwani ya nanongnan mumbaki ama takon di nun-iskul handi. Until now, my father continues to be (is still) a pagan priest even though he has gone to school. Ya nanongnan dehdin ang-ang-angok nan bibiyon deh hinangngab ku. And I could still see the fairy standing in front of me. ‑nan. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.6 - Aspectual time.) 3advpred. to continue forever unchanged; always. Munnananong hi Apu Dios an wada. God will exist forever and ever. Adi munnananong an waday tiempok. I will not always have time. muN‑ CV‑. infl. nunnanong

nanong₂ sta. to be immature; young, immature fruit. Adi malumii te nanong. It’s not sweet because it is immature. (sem. domains: 1.5.6 - Growth of plants.)

napat-alan di nomom (id. of nomnom) to understand something (lit. the mind is lighted).

natalak di nomnom (id. of nomnom) an idiom referring to the feeling of panic (lit. mind is lost).

neya dem. see there, used particularly to draw attention to someone or something. Neya nan ulog an mangali.<