Search results for "nuN-"

kay ka nun-ingan dale (id. of inga) You are obstinate and do not heed the advice of others. (lit. You are like an eared-jar.)

nuN- TACR. 1this prefix encodes past tense and durative time aspect; it cross references the subject and is the default affix for Class 1 verbal roots. <Morphophonology: The velar consonant in coda position assimilates to the point of articulation of the first consonant in the root.> Nip-ot bo te nundogo ot mate. To top it all off, he fell sick and died. Om, te maid di hilhilbi hin ugge ta nun-adal ya maid di ngunu. Yes, because one is as good for nothing without education (lit. have not learned) and without a job. 2past tense, signals a durative aspect activity rather than a punctiliar action when co-occurring with a transitive verbal root, cross references subject. Nuntudokak ke hiya nimpe. 3when the prefix co-occurs with the reduplicant CV(C)-, it encodes past tense, durative-continuative aspect and cross references the subject. 4when this affix co-occurs with Class 6 verb roots, it changes statives to durative processes; it encodes past tense and cross references the subject. 5the prefix derives verbs from nouns; it encodes past tense and cross- references the subject. Man-ut nun-iskul mu ingganah grade four ya abu. He took formal education to grade four only Nun-ampuyo kamin am-in an binabai. All of us women wore the Ifugao skirt. 6the prefix encodes past tense, reflexive and cross references both the subject and object expressed in a single noun phrase. Indani ya naatu da nin nundopap. After a while maybe they were tired of grappling with each other.

nuN- -an₁ 1TACR. this circumfix cross-references a time or place noun phrase. Handih nun-ap-apuwan di Ippangyol hitud Pilipinas ya waday immalid Kiangan. During the Spanish rule in the Philippines, some of them to Kiangan. Nakaluggit nan eyu nungkekeyan. The place you went swimming is very dirty. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2TACR. this circumfix encodes the concept of distributing an action or activity over time, space, or participants; non-past tense; cross-references agent-subject. Nuntotobbalan dah diyen aton da ot gutudon day algo. They agreed to do that and set a date. 3nom. nominalizes a non-noun form. Indani udot ya wada on tagun nanibon hiya ot baddanganan ianamut hi nunhituwan mid Longnga. Fortunately, a man was passing by and saw him and brought him to our house in Longnga.

nuN- -an₂ DEV. this circumfix is a clausal nominalizing affix; past tense. Idutidutinay numbaddanganan ha-on She is always repeating stories about how she helped me.

nuN- -inn- rec. this circumfix encodes a reciprocal action or activity; past tense; cross-references subjects. Deket mo ta nakaggibu ya matibo nan duwan kapkapyan di ulun di nuwang nah numbinnongwa. When it (the bench) is really finished, it looks like a misshapen animal with two carabao heads, one on each end. Numbinnalbal dah bulwati. They washed each other’s clothes. Nunkinnaan da hi apatut. They removed each others’ shoe. Sim: muN- -inn-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nuN- -on this circumfix encodes the notion that there are plural agent-subjects, each one performing the action expressed in the verb, and it cross-references the object referents; past tense. Danaen liman patul ya nun-aaddumon day tindalu da nah Nundotal an Siddim an nih-up nah Naten Baybay. (Genesis 14:3) Those five kings, they joined together their soldiers at the Siddim Valley which is by the Dead Sea. Sim: muN- -on. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nun-aapu nom. refers to the relation that exists between the parents of spouses; it is considered a relationship of mutual support. [The responsibilities of such a relationship includes the mutual support of each other’s clans in disputes and ceremonial occasions.] (sem. domains: 4.1.9.2 - Related by marriage.)

nun-addum (infl. of addum) v. to live together as the final stage of the traditional betrothal-marriage ceremonies. Nun-addum da mo da Bugan ke Wigan. Bugan and Wigan are now living together. muN/nuN . (sem. domains: 2.6.1 - Marriage.)

nun-i- TACR. this prefix combination encodes distributive action over multiple objects that are cross-referenced; it also encodes past tense. <The nun- form encodes the distributive component, and the i- cross-references the object.> Nun-idadaan day ootak da ya papahul da. They prepared their bolos and their spears. Nun-iboten Maria nan hinawwal min pintor. Maria placed the extra paint in bottles (lit.bottled) the paint we saved. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

CV(C)₁ asp. 1the reduplication of the first syllable, either CV or CVC, of a verbal root is the morpheme form that encodes the continuative aspect; this aspect expresses a single, uninterrupted continuing activity; continue. Kabigabigat on nangin-innum da ya nunhahamul da nah muyung. Every day these men continue to feast and drink in the forest. Idihhan ta hin mungngangala da ta adi dita donglon ke dida. We will coincide it with when they are continuously noisy so they will not hear us. Maanlaanak an mundawdaw-en nah bungana on kinkinnan ku. I enjoyed continuing to pick and eat the fruit. Munhaghaggeyak te nikudliyak. I am limping because I slipped. Ot matatpuuk da nah puhung, mundopdoppap dah di. Then, they splashed into the pool, continuing to grapple there. 2expresses a continuative time aspect when co-occuring with roots that have an inherent punctiliar time aspect, but have been derived to have a durative time aspect with the prefix set muN-/nuN-. Mumpaypaytuk ya mungkuli te hidiyey pinghanan ena nakidilagan hi allama. She jumped and screamed because it was the first time she went to catch crabs with a torch. Ek ang-angon, munhidhid-ipak te nahilong ya- maid hi Lammooy I went to see, I was straining my eyes because it was dark, Lammooy was not around Nuntadtaddog kamin mundongdongngol hi kalkalyon nan mittulu. We were continuously standing as we were listening to the speech of the teacher. (sem. domains: 8.4.6.1.3 - End.)

gabyon 1comm. hoe. Nan gabyon di pun-amung mu nah lugit. Use the hoe to gather the dirt. (sem. domains: 6.2.8 - Agricultural tool.) 2intrans. to use a hoe to break up ground. Munggabyon da nah garden Juan ad uwani. They are hoeing in the garden of Juan today. muN-/nuN-. 3trans. to hoe a particular piece of ground. Gabyonon da nan ginatangan Pedro. They will hoe the land Pedro bought. -on/-in-. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

mundogo (infl. of dogo) intrans. to be sick. muN-/nuN-. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick.) n. ph. Hongan di mundogo

muN- -inn- TACR. this circumfix encodes a reciprocal action or activity; non-past tense; cross-references agent-subjects. Mun-innapput da nan hintulang. The two brothers are competing with each other. Sim: nuN- -inn-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

muN- -on trans. this circumfix encodes the notion that there are plural agent-subjects, each one performing the action expressed in the verb, and it cross-references the object referents; non-past tense. Sim: nuN- -on. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

‑um‑ 1TACR. this infix is a default affix for Class 2 verbal roots; non-past tense, punctiliar aspect; cross references the subject. Umali nah langtay ya inang-ang nah Lammooy an dimpanay takle nat iadi nanno umeh Pangka. He came to the bridge and he saw Lammooy who extended his arm preventing Pangka to pass. Sim: ‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2TACR. when affixed to transitive verbs, this infix encodes non-past and punctiliar aspect; it cross-references subject and expresses partitive quantification of the undergoer object. Umidat ka nah kankannom an tinapay. Give me some of the food you are eating. Kumaan ka nah dotag ta ihaang mu. Slice some of that meat and cook it. Sim: umi-. 3proc. when affixed to Class 6 verbs, this infix encodes a process incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Inun-unud day imbagan Pablo ot ahi pumhod nan unga. They did and the child got well. Wumotwot di tugal. Gambling makes a person become poor. 4TACR. this infix derives an intransitive process verb from a noun or adjective; it encodes incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Hay humagabi ya hay kadangyan. The man who performs the hagabi-ceremony must be rich. Deket maid di dayakkot ya adi dumanum nan ikail. If there is no glutinous rice to mix in, the preparation will not produce any juice at all. 5TACR. this infix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar or inceptive aspect and cross-references subject. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Matibon mundogo, ot ibagana nadah aammod nan umayag dah mamakko. She was not evidently in good health so he advised the parents to call for a mamakko-shaman. Deket e mangan, umukmun ni-an hi mahampot an tubun di holok. Before it eats, it first swallows coarse grass.

abba to carry. 1.1trans. to carry someone or something in a blanket or shawl on the back or front (chest area). [This is the typical way to carry babies and small children. A child is usually carried on the back with a shawl or blanket; also something breakable or valuable to be carried a distance is carried like this.] Iabbam hanan golang. Carry the child on your back. Iabbam nan buhi ten i-em hi alang te andani ya mag-a. Carry the wine jar on your back when you bring it to the granary lest it falls. i‑/iN‑. 3F Move object with self. Sim: bakyug. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.) 1.2v. refers to the manner in which something is carried, on the back. Mun-abba kayu ta umagwat taku. Carry that on your back so that we can cross the river. Nun-inabbah golang. She’s carrying a child on her back. muN‑/nuN‑.

addum unite. 1.1trans. to unite by bringing two or more things together; to combine; to merge; Nun-addumon mi nan patani ya immeh ohan botok. We combined the lima beans and it exceeded one bundle. muN‑ ‑on/nuN‑ ‑on. (sem. domains: 7.5.2 - Join, attach, 7.5.1.2 - Include.) 1.2trans. to add something to another thing Iaddum mu tun bulhe nah pun-ihaang mun dotag. Add these beans to the pork you are cooking. i /iN . (sem. domains: 8.1.4.2 - Increase.) infl. nun-addum

agol 1comm. to be hesitant; refers to the feeling of hesitation to do a thing because of fear of consequences. Waday agol kun e mundallanan nah hilong. I am afraid to go and walk around during night time. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.3 - Doubt.) 2intrans. Umagolak an e hunggop hi baleda. I am hesitant to enter their house. Nun-ule-ule da te uma-agol hi Bugan an mundalan nah madanglol an banong. They walked slowly because Bugan was cautiously walking on the slippery dikes. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2C Emotion and sensation. (sem. domains: 9.4.4.5 - Uncertain.)

ahap 1comm. meat, small uncooked pieces given to helpers and neighbors at a feast. Sim: atal. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to distribute pieces of meat at a feast. Nun-iahap da nan natdaan an dotag. They distributed the extra meat in small pieces. muN‑ i‑/nuN‑ i‑. (sem. domains: 9.6.1.7 - Distribution.)

ahhing intrans. to assault or abuse someone alternately, may be verbal or physical; to take turns assaulting. Nun-aahhingan dan dinuntuk nan mangako. They took turns in hitting the thief. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.)

allage 1comm. lamentations; mourning cries of women for the dead. [They tell anecdotes about the life of the dead person; they also say or express their grief in words.] Adi maphod nan logmonay allagen nan in-ina. The lamentations of the old woman were insincere and senseless. Nun-allageh Tipanay handih natayan Rosario. Tipanay sang the lamentations at the time Rosario died. (sem. domains: 2.6.6.4 - Mourn.) 2intrans. to mourn or lament a death. muN‑.

allung 1comm. a shelter; hut with no walls; a lean-to. Etaku munhidum dih allung. Let’s take shelter in that hut. Sim: bale, kihikugan, abung. (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.) 2trans. to build a lean-to or shelter. Allungan yu nan nun-impan babuy nah mabalat. Make a shelter for the pig which gave birth near the banana plants. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something.

almas (sp. var. armas) 1comm. refers to weapons that are largely used in wars. 2intrans. to be armed with weapons. Nun-almas dat makigubat. They are armed so that they can join in war. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 4.8.2 - Fight, 4.8.3 - War.)

am-in adj. all; referring to people, i.e. everyone, or things, i.e. everything. Makakkaphodan am-in di matiboh tu. Everything that is seen here is beautiful. Am-in on ipabahul nan ha-oy. He blames me for everything. Nun-ampuyo kamin am-in an binabai. All of us women wore the Ifugao skirt. Number quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.1.6 - Whole, complete, 8.1.5 - All.)

amad trans. to wipe or rub eyes; especially to remove dirt particles or in order to see better. Munluluwa nan matanah nun-amadana. His eyes are tearing as a result of rubbing them. Amadom nan inik mu. Wipe away the dirt from your eyes. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 2.1.1.1 - Eye.)

an₁ lk. 1this form links a main clause and a complement clause. Naka-ang-ang ku an pungkiting daka. I actually saw that you were being pinched. Tinuttuduwanak an kumalih kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Katatakut pay an e buma-el na kalata. It is very dangerous to cross the street. 2this form links a relative clause to noun and verb heads. Handih 25th di Aplil kinalin Mayor an umali kanu da Apu Paredes ke Apu Datumanong hitu ad Ifugao. On the 25th of April, the Mayor said, it is reported, that Mr. Paredes and Mr. Datumanong would come here to Ifugao. 3this form links quantifiers and adjectives to noun heads. <Morphophonology: When the preceding word ends in a vowel, the vowel of the linker is reduced and the n attaches to the word.> Nun-ampuyo kamin am-in an binabai. We, all of us women, wore the Ifugao-skirt. comp. deya ot an

ange₁ 1comm. a snare trap for catching birds. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.) 2trans. to inspect a snare trap to see if something was caught; the activity is in view. E nun-ange ya wada on hamuti. He went to check the snare trap and there was a bird. mun‑, ‑on. id. mun-angeh tagu.

angngal intrans. 1to compete in a contest of wealth. [A competition between two families of the same rank by providing pigs and carabao for feasts.] Nun-a-angngal day aammod nadan immuya-uy. The families of the bride and groom competed during the wedding. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. 2to intermarry, involves two rich families who arrange the marriage of their children.

annunu 1intrans. an agent slides down to a slower level. Nun-annunu nah kaiw. He slid down the tree. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.5 - Move down.) 2slide something. 2.1trans. for an agent to slide something down to a lower level. Annunuwon yu nan kaiw. Slide the logs down. 2.2pass. slip down Naannunuy pantalon na. His pants slipped down.

apnga 1intrans. to welcome people into homes or to participate in special occasions; be hospitable. Mun-ap-apnga taku te ammuna ad uwanin nundadammuwan taku. Let us rejoice for it is only now that we have all met together. Nun-aapnga dan hintutulang dih kasal da Segun ke Ellaine. They welcomed their relatives to the wedding of Segun and Ellaine. general: People are not only hospitable, they are cheerful and happy to welcome people into their homes. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 4.2.1.4.1 - Welcome, receive.) 2comm. a welcome. Kayang di apnga na nah dintngan nan imbabalena. Her welcome/rejoicing was great when her child arrived.

apulidu 1comm. surname; family name; last name. Nun-ingngo di apulidu da mu bokon da hintulang. They have the same family name but they are not related. (sem. domains: 9.7.1.2 - Family names.) 2trans. to use a particular name as a family name. Inapulidu nay ngadan amana. He used his father’s first name as his family name. Cultural note: To use a father’s first name as a surname is a common practice in the culture. i‑/iN‑. Sim: ngadan. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

asukal (sp. var. atukal; sp. var. asukar) 1comm. sugar Ha-adam hi asukal nan kape. Put sugar in the coffee. Sim: dil’u. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to use or place sugar on something. Asukalam nan gattak. Put sugar in the milk. Iasukal yu nan una. Use the sugarcane for sweetening. Nun-asukal nan nan una. He used the sugarcane juice for sugar. ‑an/‑in‑ an, i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: azucar.

awwit intrans. to fight; quarrel with words or fists. Nun-awwit da dih hilong. They fought last night. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: tutut, dama. (sem. domains: 4.8.2 - Fight, 3.5.1.6.2 - Quarrel.)

Bahawit prop. a place in Lagawe along the Ibulao River. Eda nun-amod Bahawit. They went to take a bath at Bahawit.

bain 1comm. a feeling of humiliation, embarrassment resulting from being disgraced by someone or from an action that is disapproved by others. Maid di bain mu. You are a disgrace./You have no shame. Sim: ban-ule. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.2.1 - Ashamed.) 2shameful. 2.1nom. to think that an action or situation does not meet the standard of appropriate behavior. Kababain di namuttag tan ume ya maid nihmoy idat nah mungkasal. It’s shameful to attend a wedding without anything to give to the couple (bride and groom). ka‑ CV‑. 2.2ashamed. 2.2.1intrans. to feel ashamed or shy. Bumain an mangibagan he-a. He is ashamed to tell you. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2C, Emotion and sensation. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.2.1 - Ashamed.) 2.2.2trans. to embarrass or humiliate someone; the victim is in view and cross-referenced by the affix. Nakaba-inanak te bina-inanak nah mittulu. I was so embarrassed because the teacher insulted me. Bainan daka ke ya op-opya ka. If they shame you, just keep quiet. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 2.2.3intrans. to be shy or ashamed. Mumba-iba-in kinali maid di ginun-ud na. She was too shy that’s why she got nothing. muN‑. 2.2.4trans. to be ashamed of something or someone with whom one is associated. Adim ibain an ihitu ka. Do not be ashamed that you are from here. Ibain nah inana. She is ashamed of her mother. i‑/iN‑. infl. ba-inan infl. bimmain infl. maba-inan infl. mibabain

baliw 1intrans. to change, transform one’s attitude, behavior, mind, physical appearance and things. Mumbaliw ka mo te naam-ama ka. Reform/Change your ways because you are already old. Ug-ugge numbaliw. He didn’t change at all. Dih nun-ahawa da Bugan ke Jose ya numbaliw hi ustu Jose. Adi mo makanginnum ya adi pay muntugal ot maan-anla Bugan. When Maria and Jose got married, Jose reformed. He stopped drinking and gambling and that made Maria very happy. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. Sim: lumman. (sem. domains: 4.3.8 - Change behavior.) 22.1trans. to change something, e.g. change and twist someone’s words or the truth. Adim balbaliwan nan kinalik. Don’t be changing/twisting what I have said. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 2.2pass. refers to something that has been or will be changed. Nabaliwan di nun-ubuna. His sitting position changed. Pinhod kun mabaliwan di pangi-em. I want your life-style to change. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. infl. mangibaliw

balu₂ comm. a young unmarried man. Balu mo nan ungan nun-ay-ayam ku handi. The child with whom I played before is a young man now. (sem. domains: 2 - Person.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: baru.

ban’ong 1comm. lip of ricefield dike which contains the water; projecting edge of ricefield dike sometimes stepping stones are laid for walking on the lip. Niphod mo nan banong nan payo? Is the ricefield dike already fixed? Nun-ule-ule da te uma-agol hi Bugan an mundalan nah madanglol an banong. They walked slowly because Bugan was cautious walking on the slippery dikes. Sim: botnge. (sem. domains: 6.5.2.1 - Wall.) 2trans. to build ricefield dikes. Banongan dan nan payo ad uwani. They are going to build the ricefield dike today. Mumbanong da ama nah payon da Juan. Father and his companions are building mud dikes in the Juan’s field. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something.

basketbol 1comm. refers to the game of basketball or the ball used in the game. E nun-ay-ayyam hi basketbol ad da-ul. He went to play basketball down below. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) 2intrans. to play basketball. Mumbasketbol da nadan u-unga. The children are playing basketball. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: English: basketball.

binabai (infl. of babai) comm. the plural form of woman/female. Nun-ampuyo kamin am-in an binabai. All of us women wore the Ifugao skirt. Adim ilagat nadan binabai. Do not involve the women. ‑in‑. (sem. domains: 2 - Person.)

bog-ak 1comm. laughter that is loud and sudden; guffaw. Sim: tatawa, gegek, gigi, titit, halekhek, anggak, albuwang; Sim: halekhek, anggak, albuwang, bughak. (sem. domains: 3.5.6.4 - Laugh.) 2intrans. to laugh very loudly. Makabbog-ak hi Cora nah emi nun-ay-ayyaman. Cora laughed very loudly when we were playing. maka‑ C. 3trans. to laugh loudly at something. Binog-akan mi nan kinali nad ohhandi. We laughed loudly at what he told us the other day. Adina ibog-ak nan tatawa na an iippol na. He isn’t laughing loudly because he is controlling it. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑.

bote 1comm. refers to any bottle container. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to place something in a bottle. Nun-iboten Maria nan hinawwal min pintor. Maria bottled the paint that we had left-over. Umeyak ked Solano on binoten mantekay gattangok te nalaklaka. When I go to Solano I buy bottled cooking oil because it is cheaper. nuN‑ i‑, ‑in‑.

buhul 1comm. enemy. [Usually an enemy belongs to a kin group that either has killed someone from one’s kin group or who has had a member killed by someone belonging to one’s own kin group.] Maid di buhul da. They have no enemies. (sem. domains: 4.8.2.5 - Revenge.) 2intrans. to have enemies; to have blood enemies. Dakol day numbuhul handi mu nun-aapu da. There are many who were blood enemies before but they had their children marry each other. Nunbinnuhul da Pedro ke Miguel hi maid gapuna. Pedro and Miguel are enemies without a real cause. Adika ot makiapu ke da naen pamilya te nakabuhhulan da. Don’t intermarry with that family because they have many enemies. Adik pinhod an mabuhulan te ad-adi ya maid di amlong. I do not like to have enemies because it is not good and there is no happiness. ma‑ ‑an, naka‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑,. Sim: aw’it.

bukbuk₁ trans. to pour out solid substances from a container. Ibukbuk mu nan nihudu nah kulbung. Pour out the contents of the rice container. Bukbukan yu nadan holok ta mate da. Pour some on the grasses so they will wither. Nun-ibukbuk nay asukal ya gattak nah duyuna. He poured too much sugar and milk on his plate. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, nuN‑ i‑. 3B Move and release object. (sem. domains: 7.3.2.7 - Take something out of something.)

da₁ pers. 1they; third person, plural pronoun; the form is a member of both Set 1 and Set 2 and encodes the subject grammtical relation, whether or not it is cross-referenced. Indatan dah Pangkah ittay hiyo dotag ot kanana ot di mun-iyan ad Mamangan. They gave Pangka some small er...meat and told him to spend the night at Mamangan. Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid outside of the camp. Inha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They left the basket in our house. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2third person plural, possessive pronoun, Set 1; equivalent to the English possessive pronoun ‘their’. Ume kamih bale da. We are going to their house. Loktat mo anhan ya nauman am-in di odon da. Soon enough, nothing was left of their heirlooms. Nun-idadaan day ootak da ya papahul da. They prepared their bolos and their spears. comp. dehdida ph. v. dedah di ph. v. dedah tu

dama₁ 1comm. a game like checkers. Naapputak hi nun-ay-ayyaman mi hi dama ke Jose I was defeated when I played checkers with Jose. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) 2intrans. to play checkers. Mundama da hin magibbu dan mangan. They will play checkers when they are through eating. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

danglol 1sta. to be slippery. Madanglol nan dalan an umed Linda. The path which goes to Linda is slippery. Madanglol nan manteka nah dulung. The cooking oil on the floor is slippery. Nun-ule-ule da te uma-agol hi Bugan an mundalan nah madanglol an banong. They walked slowly because Bugan was cautious walking on the slippery dikes. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.3.2 - Texture.) 2proc. to become slippery. Dumanglol nan kalata hin umudan. If it rains, the road will became slippery. Ha-adam hi lana nan buuk mu ta dumanglol. Put oil on your hair so that it will be soft (lit. slippery). ‑um‑/‑imm‑. infl. madanglol

deya (sp. var. daya) (comp. of de, ya) adjunct. see there! expression of confirmation. Deya ot an nun-obbo kayun dimmatong. There, you arrived one after the other. La-uwanay lulug ya deyan umanidu hin tininggadan da. Its height comes to your knee and yet, there, it gives heat when they light it. Interjection. comp. deyahdi comp. deyahna comp. deyahtu

gahal comm. particles like sand and salt. Nun-ogay gahal nah buwod an napnuh danum. Small particles settled in the jar full of water. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: gasar.

gungak (sp. var. gungik) 1comm. a wound/dent on the skull due to being hit with a stone, iron rod or by falling and hitting the head against something. <The stative form is more commonly used.> Waday gungak na kinali muntataddung. He has a wound on his skull that is why he is always wearing a hat. (sem. domains: 2.5.3 - Injure.) 2sta. to have a wound on the skull. Nun-oga ot deyan nagungakan. He fell and now there’s a hole in his skull. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 6A Physiological Process - State.

habhab intrans. to eat something greedily. Nun-ihabhab na nan tinapay te nakaaggangan. He ate the bread greedily because he was so hungry. Hay ke babuy ya ihabhab nan mangan. The pig eats greedily. nuN‑ i‑, i‑/iN‑. Sim: hangal, kamal, mokmok. (sem. domains: 5.2.2.4 - Manner of eating.)

hakmul (sp. var. hakmal) trans. to eat something in big amounts. Nun-ihakmul na nan ihda, kinali gagalan nama-id. He ate the viand in big amounts that’s why it was quickly gone. muN‑ i‑/nuN‑ i‑. (sem. domains: 5.2.2 - Eat.)

hanggik trans. to intimidate by scolding; to bully; loud disputation with mutual reproach. [Hanggik gives the idea that the one being scolded is smaller or weaker than the one scolding and so is intimidated; hong-ak is simply to scold in a loud voice.] Adim katog ihanggik nan ibam an babai. Have pity, don’t scold your sister. Nun-ihanggikak ke ina te hay nunhanggikak ke he-a. Mother had been scolding me because I bullied you. i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. Speech Verbs - Manner of speaking. Sim: hong-ak, hingal, bugtak. (sem. domains: 4.8.4.1 - Rebuke.)

hawwal 1comm. extra part; surplus; over-the-limit; over-the-requirement; may refer to both count and mass things. Kaatnay hawwal na? How much is the extra. Umidat kah hawwal na. Give some extra. Sim: suruk, hubla. (sem. domains: 8.1.3.1 - Many, much, 8.1.7.1 - Extra.) 2trans. to give more than enough; to do more than enough. Hawwalam hi lima. Give five for extra. Ihawwal muy opat. Give four for the extra. Tipe bot hawwalonah na-e. Why should he leave that as extra? Had-om ta waday hawwalok. Wait until I leave something extra. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑. 3trans. to save or keep what is not needed. Nun-iboten Maria nan hinawwal min pintor. Maria bottled the paint we saved. ‑in‑.

hilbi 1comm. to have usefulness or worth; valuable. Nganney hilbinah tuwe? What is the use of this? Om, te maid di hilhilbi hin ugge ta nun-adal ya maid di ngunu. Yes, because one is worthless without education and without a job. Sim: gunguna. (sem. domains: 8.3.7.9 - Value.) 2intrans. to be of value to someone, implies serving someone in some way. Hiyay munhilbin ha-on. He is of value to me. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: silbi. ph. v. maid di hilbina

hiN- CV- quan. when this prefix and reduplicant combination co-occurs with numbers, it functions to divide and distribute whatever is being modified by the affixed number, e.g. one each, two each Ohan algo ya inayagan Jesus nadan himpulut duwan disipulos na ot hindudwa on intud-ak nah kabobboblen e muntuttudu...(Marcos 6:7) One day, Jesus called his twelve disciples and then, he sent two each to the villages to teach... Am-in dadiyen kuwartu ya nun-iingngon himpupulun piyey lukud di kadukkena ya kabilog na. (Ezekiel 40:7b) All of those rooms were the same in measurement, each one was ten feet in length and width. (sem. domains: 9.2.9 - Affixes, 8.1 - Quantity.)

hitu 1dem. Class 4 demonstrative pronoun; refers to spatial area: here, near speaker. <Morphophonology: the h of the demonstrative attaches to a previous word ending in a V; the i vowel of the demonstrative drops, and the tu remains.> Dahdiy wadah tu? Who is in here? Handih nun-ap-apuwan di Ippangyol hitud Pilipinas ya waday immalid Kiangan. During the Spanish rule here in the Philippines, some of them came to Kiangan. Hitu ke ya danum an maid di poppog nay maang-ang. Here, all you see is water without an end. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) 2comm. refers to someone who is from the place,where the speaker is talking; from here. Ihitu da. They are from this place. 3nom. the place where someone resides; home; speaker’s house. Indani udot ya wada on tagun nanibon hiya ot baddanganan ianamut hi nunhituwan mid Longnga. Fortunately, a man was passing by and saw him and brought him to our house in Longnga. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. athitu comp. athituy comp. dehtu comp. deyahtu comp. wadahtu der. ihtu der. nunhituwan ph. v. dedah tu

iliw sta. to be homesick; to feel lonely or to miss someone. Nun-oppot da Juan ke Maria an maka-iliw dan duwa. Both Juan and Maria miss each other. Mailiw nadah imbabalena ot umanamut. He missed his children so he came home. ma‑, makaC1‑. Sim: ilmu, ingle. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.1 - Sad.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

iN- TACR. 1this prefix encodes past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross-references the direct object with the conveyed semantic role; it is a member of the default affix set for Class 3 verbal roots. Inha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They placed the basket in our house. Sim: i-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2this prefix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it derives a transitive verb when it co-occurs with Class 1A intransitive movement verbal roots and cross-references an object that moves with the agent, e.g. to bring something or to take something. In-alik nan liblum. I brought your book. 3this prefix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross-references an instrument object with Class 4 verbal roots. Indikhal na nan matadom an wahe. He used the sharp ax to split wood. 4this prefix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect and expresses a manner component related to the phrase or clause in the direct object NP position of the main clause. Initpol nay takut nan kananah nomnom nay kapyana nin. He endured/controlled his fear and thought maybe that’s just its nature. Indalan da Bugan nah papayo. Bugan and her mother walked through the ricefields. 5this prefix encodes past tense; co-occurs with a time aspect adverbial predicate and cross-references the clause embedded in the object NP position of the main clause. Intuluy nan mangan inggana nabhug. He continued to eat until he was satisfied. Intikod nan muntugal te binungotan ama na. He stopped gambling because his father scolded him. 6this prefix encodes non-past tense, derives a verb from a noun, and the object is usually incorporated though a specific object may be explicit and cross-referenced. In-akbut na nan bulwati na. He backpacked his clothes. 7this prefix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it co-occurs with speech verbs and cross references the object that refers to what is said. “Mapopotangan ka ya abuh di,” inhumang amana. You will just be standing in the sun,” answered his father. Inun-unud day imbagan Pablo ot ahi pumhod nan unga. They did what Pablo told them and the child got well.

ine (infl. of e) 1intrans. to marry. Nun-ine kami handih ti-algo. We married last summer. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 2.6.1 - Marriage.) 2trans. to marry someone. Handih gubat ya in-inek di inayak. During the war, I married my spouse. i‑/iN‑. der. inayan infl. mun-ine

inggana conj. 1until, continuance of an action or activity ending with a specified time event or action. Mahuyop ka inggana umaliyak. You sleep until I come. (sem. domains: 8.4.7 - Continue, persevere.) 2until; marks an adverbial time phrase. Ingganad uwani ya nanongnan mumbaki ama takon di nun-iskul handi. Until now, my father continues to be a pagan-priest even though he has gone to school. Man-ut nun-iskul mu ingganah grade four ya abu. He took formal education to grade four only. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. comp. ta inggana infl. ingga-inggana

ingngo 1intrans. to be similar; to be alike; to resemble; to be equal. Nun-ingngo di bulwati da. They have the same clothes. Adinadaman eka miingngon nah apum. You cannot be equal to your boss. muN‑, mi‑. Sim: obot, umat, paddung. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.2.1 - Same.) 2trans. to imitate; to follow or copy what someone does. Ining-ingo nay pungkalkalin inana. She imitated the way her mother talks. Ing-ingo nay pumbulwatin tulang na. She imitates the way her sister dresses. Iingngo yu nah kinapya dan ubunan. Imitate (make one the same) the chair that they made. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 4.3.1.2 - Meet a standard.) 3sta. to be identical. Naka-ingngoy angada te dappilda. Their faces are identical because they are twins. naka‑. 4proc. to become the same. Deket palhu di pangiha-angam, mahapul an uggan mu ikiwa ta mun-iingngoy lutu na. If a skillet is used, it is necessary to stir the rice from time to time so that it will be cooked evenly. muN‑ i‑. der. kaingngo der. kiingngohan

itlug 1comm. egg. Ihibak mu nan itlug. Boil the egg. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2intrans. to lay eggs. Makangngitlug tun manok ku. My hen lays many eggs. Nun-itlug nan manuk di linggu. The hen laid an egg last Sunday. muN‑/nuN‑. 3comm. a nest for laying eggs. Wada nah daulon di pun-itlugan nan gawgawa. The nest of the duck is under the house. Duway dalanom ta ahim datngan di bulan. (itlug)(riddle) You take two steps before you reach the moon. (refers to the removal of the shell and white of an egg before reaching the yolk) pun‑ ‑an.

iwe intrans. 1to be independent from parents; married couples to live independently from parents. Immiwe da Pedro ke Maria. Pedro and Maria are living independently from their parents. Nabayag dan nun-ahawa yaden ugge da ni-an immiweh. They have been married a long time now and yet they are not yet independent from their parents. Maphod di umiwe ta hin nalahin ta. It’s proper and fitting to live separately (from parents) when married. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. 2to live alone, separated from family or others. [It is unusual for anyone to live alone in Ifugao society.] Immiweh Mattimah baleda. Maxima lives alone in their house. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

kabuy trans. to insert something into a fold or pocket, e.g. put into the fold formed by turning over the top of a skirt extending above the belt. [Placing something in a fold was particularly done when most women wore the traditional woven skirt.] Ingkab-uy na nan uwa. She placed the knife in the folded pocket of her skirt. Nun-ikabuy nay udum an moma. She placed some of the betelnut in her skirt pocket. i‑/iN‑, muN‑ i‑/nuN‑ i‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 7.3.2.6 - Put in.) der. kabuyyan

kamal (sp. var. kamel) trans. 1to stuff mouth full. Mangan ka ke ya adim ikamel nan makan. When you eat do not fill your mouth. Nun-ikamal na nan dotag. He stuffed his mouth full with meat. i‑/iN‑, muN‑ i‑/nuN‑ i‑. 3B Move and release object. Sim: hangal, habhab, mokmok. (sem. domains: 5.2.2 - Eat.) 2to feed by putting food inside another’s mouth. Pakamalam tun golang hi ittay an dotag. Feed this child by putting a piece of meat in his mouth. pa‑ ‑an.

kami pers. we exclusive; first person, plural, exclusive pronoun; member of Set 2 subject; cross-referenced by verbal affix. Maid kami hidi handi hilong. We were not there last night. Nun-ampuyo kamin am-in an binabai. All of us women wore the Ifugao skirt. Maphod te immaliy dakol hi lugan ot ume kami. Luckily there were many rides so that we could go. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

kapet trans. to cling; to hold to something desperately. Nun-oga ot ikapet na nah hapang. He fell, then clung to the branch. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct action toward an object. Sim: kawot, odon. (sem. domains: 7.3.4.4 - Hold.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

kolehiyo 1comm. college. Liman toonan nun-iskul hi kolehiyo. He studied in college for five years. (sem. domains: 3.6.2 - School.) 2intrans. to attend college. Mungkolehiyo hi toon. He is going to college next year. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: colegio.

kuldadannun comm. a tree variety with crooked branches and twigs; the lumber is used for flooring. Lingngo da nan kuldadannun ot golgolon dah tabla. They felled the kuldadannun-tree and made it into boards. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

kutu 1comm. lice that infests humans, particularly found in hair. Ad-adi waday kutu. It’s not good to have lice. Dimmakol di kutuk te uggeyak nun-amo. My lice have increased because I haven’t been bathing. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.) 2trans. to remove someone’s lice. Kutuwan daka ad uwani ta ha-oy po hi bigat. I will remove your lice now and you will also remove mine tomorrow. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something.

laki comm. a male quadruped; male animal. Nun-impa nan babuy ku ya oha ya abuy laki. My pig gave birth but there was only one male. Sim: bulug. (sem. domains: 2.6.5 - Male, female.)

lidung sta. to be sunburned. Nalidungan da nadan nun-ani te nahalman di potang. The rice harvesters were sunburned because it was very sunny. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: 2.5.3 - Injure.)

lummu intrans. refers to the cause or reason for events or emotions. Hiyay lummu hi nun-awwitan da. He is the cause of their fights. Hay linummu ya hay ugge da nangidatan hi pinhod na. The cause was that they did not give what he wanted. ‑um‑/‑inum‑. Sim: gap’u, hulun. (sem. domains: 9.6.2.5 - Cause, 9.6.2.5.1 - Reason.)

mahma trans. 1to inquire; to investigate. Mahmahan hin dahdiy nakabahul ke da naen tulun u-unga. Investigate to see who among those three children is at fault. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal-oriented sites. Sim: hanhan. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.5 - Ask.) 2to confirm the truth of something. Namahmahan an nan imbabalek di numbahul. It was confirmed that my child is the guilty one. Hay numbanagana ya namahmah kayun hintutulang an mangibagin naen nun-aammung di tatagu. The result was that you brothers were confirmed to be the ones to have what was contributed by the people. na‑/na‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.3 - True.)

manibo (infl. of tibo) trans. refers to a person who sees something. Nun-ang-ang-angak hin wadaday tagun manibon ha-on ya maid ot kumayatak. I looked around to see if there was a person seeing me, and no one was, so I climbed the tree. maN‑/naN‑.

masahe 1comm. therapeutic massage. Masahe di nun-aga da nah nahpung. They cured the sprain with massage. (sem. domains: 7.3.4.1 - Touch.) 2trans. to massage someone or a part of the body of someone. Masaheom nan hukina ta wada ot an makaan di hakit di uluna. Massage his feet so that hopefully his headache will go away. Imasahem nan takle na. You massage his arm. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. 3intrans. to massage. Hi Pedro di mummasahe te inilana. Pedro will be the one to massage because he knows how. Mummasahe handi dimmatong kami. He was massaging when we arrived. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: masaje.

muntobbalan (infl. of tobal) rec. to love each other, between a boy and girl; an extended meaning of the basic meaning to honor or approve. Nuntobbalan da kinali nun-ineda. They love each other that is why they got married. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an.

nanong₁ 1intrans. to continue unchanged over a period of time; to remain the same. Adika munnanong an muttatyu na. You will not continue to be his servant. Mahapul an munnanong kayun mumbobleh di. It is necessary that you remain living there. Munnanong ka ni-an hitu. Remain here for a while. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. Sim: ta nangamung, ta inggana, kanayun, latta. (sem. domains: 7.2.7.2 - Stay, remain.) 2advpred. modifies an event, expressing that it is unchanging over a period of time. Ingganad uwani ya nanongnan mumbaki ama takon di nun-iskul handi. Until now, my father continues to be (is still) a pagan priest even though he has gone to school. Ya nanongnan dehdin ang-ang-angok nan bibiyon deh hinangngab ku. And I could still see the fairy standing in front of me. ‑nan. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.6 - Aspectual time.) 3advpred. to continue forever unchanged; always. Munnananong hi Apu Dios an wada. God will exist forever and ever. Adi munnananong an waday tiempok. I will not always have time. muN‑ CV‑. infl. nunnanong

numpa- -an caus. this circumfix encodes a subject-causative agent with the cross-referencing of a site-object; past tense. [The site-object is often semantically a recipient or beneficiary of the action encoded in the verb.] Nganney ginun-ud yuh eyu numpabaddangan hanadah iEgypt ya iAssyria? (Jeremiah 2:18a) What did you gain by helping the Egyptians and the Assyrians? Hi Herod damdama ya nadan tindaluna ya tinaltalanggaan da ya numpadngolan da. (Luke 23:11) Herod and his soldiers also mocked and ridiculed him (Jesus). Sim: pumpa- -an; Sim: mumpa- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

obbo intrans. to follow one another in an action; one after the other. Mun-oobbo kayu bo ahan. Oh! you come and go one after the other. Deya ot an nun-obbo kayun dimmatong. There, you arrived one after the other. muN‑/nuN‑. 1B Movement with a directional component.

odda 1comm. the outer layer of something. Kinaanay oddan di bulwati na. He removed his outer garment. Sim: dakkop. 2trans. to place something over something else, e.g. shirt, cloth, paper, outer garment. Oddaon yu di ulo yu te kotol. Use two blankets because it is cold. Nun-oodda di bulwati na te makaktol. His clothes are placed one on top of the other because he feels very cold. Ioddam nan mahdol an kamahhita. Use the thick shirt for your outer garment. Naodda nan bulwatina. He is wearing two shirts. (lit. one on top of the other) Pun-odahom nan ulom te kotol. Double your blanket because its cold. ‑on//‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑, ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 7.5.2.3 - Add to something, 7.5.9 - Put.) 3trans. (fig) to commit adultery; to take another spouse, adding to the one in place. Itugun kun adim oddahan di inayam. I advise that you shouldn’t take another spouse. (sem. domains: 4.1.9.2.1 - Husband, wife.)

onan intrans. to occupy a big space; crowded around a place; blocking the way. Nun-onan nan ongal an kama da. Their big bed took all the space. Nun-oonan di page nah alang. The rice in the granary occupied the whole floor area. Kumiwang kayu ya adi kayu mun-oonan nah dalanon. Give way and don’t block the way. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 8.1.8 - Full.)

opot (sp. var. oppot) 1comm. the fault of person, implies the assigning of responsibility for something bad. Opot mu te adika magilat. It is your fault because you never learn your lesson. (sem. domains: 8.3.7.1 - Bad.) 2intrans. to act together similarly; to collaborate in wrongdoing; to ape or imitate with a negative connotation. Nun-ooppot di pangat yu. All of you act in the same bad way. muN‑/nuN‑ CV‑. 3trans. to imitate others in wrongdoing. Ip-ot mu damdaman adim donglon di kalin amam. You are also imitating them, not listening to your father. i‑/iN‑.

otak 1comm. large single-edged knife tool, used in agricultural tasks, splitting wood, etc.; bolo An inalam nan otak? Did you bring along the bolo? Matadom nan otak mu. Your bolo is sharp. Sim: hinalung, kulukul, uwa. (sem. domains: 6.2.8 - Agricultural tool.) 2intrans. to bring along a bolo. Nun-inotak an e nanibo nah natalak an nuwang. They brought along thier bolos to look for the lost carabao. muN‑ iN‑/nuN‑ iN‑. id. kay hubil di nuwang di otak id. Maid di hilbin di adi tumadom an otak.

otan 1trans. to move the location of something. It-an da nan bale da nah tap-on di wa-el. They will move their house above the creek. Umit-an kah boga nah kulbung. Transfer some rice to the rice-container. i‑/iN‑, ‑umi‑/‑immi‑. 3A Move and position object at site. Sim: aldan. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.) 2ref. to change places; to transfer oneself to another location. Nun-ottan da hi ubunan. They changed seats. Mun-ottan da kanuh kiha-adan. They will transfer to another place to stay. Adika mun-ota-otan hi ubunan. Do not transfer from one seat to another. muN‑/nuN‑.

pa- -on (‑on) caus. this circumfix encodes non-past and a causative concept; it cross-references the patient-object relation rather than the causative agent. Hanadan tatagun maka-am-amlong ya paamlongon day ibba da ya paphodon nan maphod an kalyon day gibok nan mangngol. (Proverbs 15:30) The people who are very happy cause their companions to be happy and by the good things they say, they cause those who hear to feel good. Inun-unud day kalina ot pab-unon da nadan tatagu. (Luke 9:15) They followed what he said and had the people sit down. Sim: pa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

pahul 1comm. a wooden rod with a double bladed-knife; a spear. [To step over a spear is taboo because it will cause the spear to miss its mark.] Intanod na nan pahul mu nihalla. He threw the spear but missed. Nun-idadaan day ootak da ya papahul da. They prepared their bolos and their spears. Sim: balabog, baghe, gayang, hinolgat, ludit. (sem. domains: 4.8.3.7 - Weapon, shoot.) 2trans. to spear something. Nganne em pahulon? What will you spear? ‑on/‑in‑.

palasyut 1comm. parachute. Nun-atop da nan palasyut. He used the parachute for a roof. 2intrans. to use a parachute. Numpalasyut da nadan tindalu ot umpa da nah maholok. The soldiers parachuted and landed on the grassy spot. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: English.

Pilipinas prop. refers to the country, Philippines. Handih nun-ap-apuwan di Ippangyol hitud Pilipinas ya waday immalid Kiangan During the Spanish rule in the Philippines, some of them came to Kiangan.

pohod 1to be valued as good. 1.1sta. to have the property of being good; to meet a standard of something to be desired or something that is favorable for someone; good, beautiful, nice. Maphod tun bulwatin indat da. This dress that they gave you is beautiful. He-ay kapkaphodan hi bale nah tud Kiangan. You have the nicest house in Kiangan. Maphod te immaliy dakol hi lugan ot ume kami. It was good because there were many rides so that we could go. Mabalin bon kalyok an maphod di memory na. I think he probably has a good memory too. ma‑, ka‑ CVC ‑an. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 8.3.7 - Good.) 1.2advpred. to meet an accepted standard of appropriate or good behavior. Mumpohod kayun umbun. You sit properly. muN‑/nuN‑. Evaluative. 2to repair, fix or improve. 2.1trans. to cause something to become good, implies that something is in disrepair or less than good. <Morphology: paka-ip-iphod, superlative, to fix perfectly.> Adim piphod ke ha-oy te uggek inila. Don’t let me fix it (lit. make good) because I don’t know how. Iphod mu nan apuy ta adi gumanab. Fix the fire so that it won’t burn its surroundings. pi‑/impi‑, i‑/iN‑. 2.2caus. to improve the life or welfare of someone. Ipaphod Apu Dios di nitaguwan taku hin mundinol takun hiya. God will make our lives good if we trust in him. ipa‑/impa‑. (sem. domains: 4.9.4.3 - Bless.) 2.3trans. to show benevolence. Iphodam hi tulang mu takon di iboboh-ol daka. Show benevolence/favor to your brother even if he is always angry with you. i‑ ‑an/ iN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 8.3.7 - Good.) 2.4intrans. to become better, i.e. to recover from sickness; get well. Kanom am-in tun agat kal-ina ot ya pumhod ka. Take all this medicine so that you can get well. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 2.5 - Healthy, 2.5.1 - Sick.) 3to love. 3.1trans. to love. Pohdom di ibbam an tagu umat hi naminhod muh adol mu. Love your fellow man as you love yourself. Impakappinhod daka. I love you very much (supremely). Pakappinhod ku mu bumainak an mangalkalin hiya. I love her very much but am ashamed to tell her. Adik pinhod an ihday amunin. I do not like to eat wildcat meat. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. 3.2nom. the nominalized form is equivalent to the English noun ‘love’. Hay paminhod di immanhan an intanuttudun Jesus hanadah tatagu. Love is what Jesus emphasized in his teaching of people./Love is the focal point of Jesus’ teaching of people. Hay naminhod kun he-a ya maid di kiingngohana. My love for you is beyond comparison. paN‑/naN‑. 4trans. to love each other. Mumpohhodan da kinali nun-ine da. They love each other that is why they got married. muN‑ ‑an. 5advpred. try one’s best. Ip-iphod nat tobotbalon da. He is trying his best for their approval. i‑ CVC‑. (sem. domains: 6.1.2.1 - Try, attempt, 8.3.7 - Good.) 6trans. to want or desire something; to like something. Pinhod kun mimih-ad kah library nah bakansen oras mu. I want you to spend most of your time in the library during your vacation. Imi-ingleyak an pinhod kun umanamut mo indani bo kaya ya uminghaak. I felt so lonely that I wanted to return home, but after a while I became adjusted. Adik pinhod an ihday amunin. I don’t like wildcat meat. ‑in‑. der. kiphodan der. maphod der. pamhod id. iphodan hi kali infl. iphod infl. kapkaphodan infl. pinhod infl. pumhod n. ph. pohod hi kali

porma comm. to shape something; to form or mold. Nun-ingngoy da lukud ya nun-ingngoy da porma. They made the measurement the same and they made the form the same. (sem. domains: 9.1.2.5 - Make.) Language Of Borrowing: English: form.

pugo₃ trans. to leave a plant alive when cutting grass or trees. Pinugo da nan tabuyug handi eda nun-uma. They left the pomelo-tree alive when they went to make a clearing. Eda mamugo nah muyung hi tanman dah kaiw. They are going to cut grass and leave selected trees alive in the forest. ‑on‑/in‑, maN‑/naN‑.

tabla₂ intrans. to tie in score in a game competition; to be even or equal in number or time. Tabla ta ot peman te nun-ingngoy puntos ta. We are tied because we have the same number of points. Muntabla kayu te nundihhan kayun dimmatong. You are tied because you have arrived at the same time. Iphod mu ta tumabla ni-mo. Do it well so that at least you will be even. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 9.6.1.8 - Equivalence.) Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

taga₂ adjunct. an expression of ridicule or scorn, indicating someone is getting what they deserve. Taga, daan boy nun-alam an makipanatte? That’s what you deserve, now what did you gain in fighting? Tagam! (expression) Go ahead! Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

tagu₁ 1comm. man; human; person. Hay punnomnom hanadan tatagu handih done ya nadan tatagud uwani ya ongal di ugge da nun-ingngohan. The way people long ago thought does not compare at all with the way people of today do. Ambiambilog ya dakkodakkol di tatagu. It is wide and there are plenty of people. Deket kanan nan tagu di humagabi, ipainila na ni-an hi iibana When a man decides to perform the hagabi-ritual, he must first inform all his relatives (sem. domains: 2 - Person.) 2comm. young adult; teenager. <Morphology: kat-agu> (sem. domains: 2.6.4.3 - Youth.) 3sta. to be alive; to revive. Nganney hangliw di nitaguwan hin mihahhaad kah nunhituwam an adika bumudal an makidammuh tatagu? What’s the joy of living if you stay in your house all the time and never go out to meet people? Inilak ot adiyak e mitmittagun munligligat te waday homok di namyun ha-oy. I know that I will not be living in hardship because the one who created me is merciful. Hay kanan di doctor ya aga kanuy nanagun he-a. According to the doctor, medicine will revive you. ni‑ ‑an, miC‑ CVC, naN‑. 4comm. physical stature. <Inflected form: katagu> (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.) 5comm. to survive, to revive. <Inflected form: tumagu> 6comm. a carved wooden statue of a person used in the traditional religion. <Inflected form: tinattaggu> (sem. domains: 4.9.8.1 - Idol.) der. katagu der. katagutagu der. kat-agu der. makitaguttagu infl. tatagu say. Hay tagu umat hi bulan, naongal on naittay.

tayag sta. to be a tall person. Natayag tun golang an nun-ingngo dan amana. This child is tall like his father. Tumayag pay tun imbabalem te unga pay. Your child will still grow taller because he is still young. ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. Opp: pokok; Sim: banawe, tag-e. (sem. domains: 8.2.2.2 - Tall.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

te conj. the logical connection that marks a reason; because. Maka te ume ta. Come because we are leaving. Om, te maid di hilhilbi hin ugge ta nun-adal ya maid di ngunu. Yes, because one is worthless without education and without a job. Bahul nadan nangipunduwana te uggeda ninomnom di aton da. It was the fault of those who were put in-charge because they didn’t think about what they will do. Subordinating conjunctions. (sem. domains: 9.6.2.5 - Cause, 9.6.2.5.1 - Reason.) comp. tedeya

tinaab (der. of taab) comm. the wood chips that result from cutting wedges in lumber. Ek nun-ala nan tinaab ta itungu mi. I went to get the chips for fuel. (sem. domains: 5.5.6 - Fuel.)

tonton 1genealogy. 1.1comm. a history of the descent of a person or family; a listing of ancestors involving successive generations. [The recitation of the names of ancestors was traditionally done during rituals related to discovering the cause of sickness or misfortune and ameliorating the situation by offering a sacrifice.] Uggek inilay tonton di aammod taku. I don’t know how to recite our genealogy. (sem. domains: 4.9.5.4 - Religious ceremony, 4.1.9.8 - Family, clan.) 1.2intrans. to recite genealogy; to enumerate. Hi amam di manonton hin nganney nun-iibaan taku. Your father will be the one to trace our genealogy to see if we are related.. maN‑/naN‑. Sim: ipadon. 2trans. to name things one by one; to list; enumerate. Anakkaya, tipet mahapul an tanontonom di ingngunum. Oh my, why do you have to enumerate all the work you’ve done. ‑on/‑in‑ + ‑an‑. Speech Verbs - General.

uggub 1comm. a dart throwing game of competition. [Dart-throwing is also used to settle property boundary disputes, theft, etc.] (sem. domains: 4.8 - Conflict.) 2intrans. to have a dart throwing contest. Nun-uggub da te lummuh poppog di payo da. They had a dart throwing contest because of their ricefield boundaries. muN‑/nuN‑.

uhhun 1trans. to place one thing on top of another. Pun-uuhhunom nadan kaiw. Place the boards one on top of the other. ‑on/‑in‑, puN‑ ‑on. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.) 2intrans. Nun-uuhhun nadan tabla. The boards are placed one on top of the other. muN‑/nuN‑.

ukip trans. to move through narrow passageway. Ukipom nan pihhu nah daulon. Crawl to get the money under the house. (space between ground and floor is narrow) Nun-iukip nah dakol an tatagu ot umeyak nah hinangab nan ap-apu. I moved through the crowd and went in front of the leader. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑ i‑/nuN‑ i‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 7.2.3.5 - Move past, over, through.)

ule 1sta. to be kind; to be calm. Indai ya kanana pay di “Maphod ta hiyo- nan bumdang ya- maule. Later on, he added “It’s good that the bumdang-spirits are kind.” Maule ot di bibiyo te umidat hi kendi, hiya ina? an kanak bo. “Mother, fairies are kind aren’t they because they give us candy,” I said. Makaulle kan ha-oy. You are very kind to me. ma‑/na‑. 6B Characteristis of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: 4.3.4 - Do good to.) 2intrans. to be careful; do something carefully; do something slowly Intugun inada an mun-ule dah dalan ya mundongol dah iskul ta waday inilaon da. Their mother instructed them to be careful on the way and to listen in class so they would learn something. Nun-ule-ule da te uma-agol hi Bugan an mundalan nah madanglol an banong. They walked slowly because Bugan was cautious walking on the slippery dikes. Tibom ta mun-ul-ulen malutu. See that it cooks slowly. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 4.4.3.4 - Caution.) infl. maule infl. ul-ule

ungngu 1trans. to kiss. Adim kayan ungnguwon di takle na. I dare you to kiss her hand. Inungngun Pedlo di takle na ya in-amping nan hiyah diyen takle. Pedlo kissed her on her hand and she slapped him with that hand. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 4.1.8 - Show affection.) 2rec. to kiss one another. Nun-ungngu da nah simbaan. They kissed each other in the church. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

ungu intrans. to desire or crave more food; may imply asking for more food. Adika mun-ungu te nun-iingoy indat ku. Do not crave for more because I gave you equal shares. Am-in ta waday makan on mun-ungu ka. Everytime there’s food, you ask for more. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 3.3 - Want.)

uppit trans. 1to put the legs together. Uppitom nan hukim te nun-iskirt ka. Place your legs together because you are wearing a skirt. ‑on/‑in‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.) 2to place something under the armpit. Uppitom nan liblu nah yoyok mu ne imme kah iskul. Place that book under your armpit and then go to school. Ongal nan inuppit nan mangga. The mango he placed under his armpit is big. ‑on/‑in‑.

upu₂ trans. to consume or use up something. Adim upuwon nan ihda te ugge nangan da tulang mu. Do not consume the viand because your brothers have not eaten. Hi Juan di nun-upu nah gahhilang. It was Juan who consumed the corn. Mungkap-u di itungu taku. Our firewood is nearly consumed. Nap-uy pihuk te nigattang hi agah. I ran out of money because it was used to buy medicine. Adim upuhon nan asukar. Don’t use up all of the sugar. Antipe ta gagalan nap-uy ahin? Why was the salt consumed so fast? ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑, mungka‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 8.1.4.3 - Decrease.)

uwani adv. 1present time; today; now; nowadays. < The determiner, ad or its allomorph, d, must co-occur.> Ad uwani, hagmukam mo. Now you ferment it. Ingganad uwani ya nanongnan mumbaki ama takon di nun-iskul handi. Until now, my father continues to be a pagan priest even though he has gone to school. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.) 2today n. ph. ad uwani

uyyad 1trans. to stretch legs out straight. Uyyadom nan hukim. Stretch your legs. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 7.3.4.7 - Extend.) 2intrans. to stretch out legs while sitting or lying down. Nun-uyyad hi Juan. Juan stretched out his legs. muN‑/nuN‑. 1B Movement with a directional component. infl. uyyadan