Search results for "pa-"

immipa- caus. this prefix encodes a causative concept; it co-occurs with emotion verbal roots and cross-references the causer-agent-subject; past tense. Immipaamo ka. You caused me to be jealous. Immipatakut ka. You caused me to be afraid. Sim: umipa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

impa- (sp. var. impi-) caus. this prefix encodes a causative concept; cross-references a patient-object, but an agent, the person doing the action is always implied though the causative-agent is the subject; past tense. Impatanom nay bulhe. He had some beans planted. Impaalik nan bulwatim. I had your clothes brought. Sim: ipa-, ipi-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

impa- -an caus. this circumfix encodes past tense and a causative concept; it cross-references a site-object, but an agent, the person doing the action is always implied though the causative-agent is the subject. Mada-idaih ya pakayahyaak moppe te impainumanak hi liting. After a while, I could breathe again because she gave me a drink of water (lit. had me drink water). Sim: pa- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

ipa- (sp. var. of ipi-) TACR. the prefix encodes a causative prefix; cross-references the object, but an agent, the person doing the action is always implied though the causative-agent is the subject; non-past tense. Ipaali na boy kolyog ya iwagot na nadan batun nipab-unan tun luta. He will bring an earthquake and he will shake the rocks that are seated on the earth. Deket kanan nan tagu di humagabi, ipainila na ni-an hi iibana. When a man decides to perform the hagabi-ceremony, he must first inform (cause to know) all his relatives. Sim: impa-, ipi-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

kipa- -an pass. this circumfix is a lexical nominalizer with a causative component. Napiliyak bon mangipainilan am-in hi taguh innun di kipaannungan nan planun ugge ni-an impainilan Apu Dios an nunlutu hi am-in. (Ephesus 3:9) I was chosen to make known to all people the fulfillment of the plan that God who created everything had not yet made known. Mu takon di athidiy udum ya maan-anlaak te hay importante ke ha-on ya hay kipainnilaan nan tuttudu mipanggep ke Kristo...(Philippi 1:18) But even though it’s like that with some (teachers), I am happy because what is important to me is that the teaching about Christ is being made known... (sem. domains: 9.2.9.3 - Derivational affixes.)

mangipa- caus. this prefix encodes a causative agent that is topicalized and cross-referenced; non-past tense. Hay pundallanan ina di mangipaatun hiya. It is mother’s walking that makes her tired. Hanan mittuluy mangipataddog hanadah u-unga. It is the teacher who will have the children stand. Nganney mangipadukke hi buuk? What will make the hair grow long? Sim: nangipa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

mipa- caus. this affix encodes both passive and causative, non-past tense. Nalgom di pinhod mun gattangon mipalpun nah kaitayan ingganah kaongalan. There is anything that you want to buy, from (beginning with) the smallest item to the largest. Mu gapu te madinol takun ahi taku ang-angon di kipaannungana ya anusan takun munho-ho-od ingganah nipaannung. (Romans 8:25) But the reason is because we trust that we will see its fulfillment, we will patiently continue waiting until it has been fulfilled. Sim: nipa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.3 - Derivational affixes.)

mipa- -an pass. this circumfix has the features of passive, causative, topicalization; non-past tense. Hay am-in nan nitudok nah kalin Apu Dios ya mipaannungan. As for everything that is written in the word of God, it will be fulfilled. Sim: nipa- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

mumpa- caus. 1this prefix encodes a causative agent in the grammatical subject position that is cross-referenced; non-past tense. Kanayun kan mundasal an mumpasalamat kan hiya. Pray always to him, thanking him. Sim: numpa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2used with any locomotion or directional verb root, giving prominence to the direction of movement. Mumpaabat an mumpaed Tinoc di oha ya mumpatpatikid an mumpaed Madannum ta ad Liwon di oha. This is where three main pathways branch out, one going to Tinoc, and ascending, going toward Madannum and one to Liwon.

mumpa- -an trans. this circumfix encodes a causative agent-subject with the cross-referencing of a site-object; non-past tense. [The site-object is often semantically a recipient or beneficiary of the action encoded in the verb.] Ot mundasalak ke he-at mumpabaddangak, APU. (Psalm 30:8) And so I prayed to you so that you will help me, LORD. Mundongol kayun papatul ya dakayun aap-apu te ikantaak hi APU DIOS an Dios Israel ya mumpagangowak hi pundayaw kun hiya! (Hanadan Huwes 5:3) You kings and you leaders listen because I will sing a song to the Lord God, the God of Israel and I will play music in my honoring of him. Sim: numpa- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nangipa- top. this prefix encodes a topicalized causative agent; the causative agent is cross-referenced; past tense. Hanan taguy nangipadikhal. That man is the one who had the wood split. Hi Mariay nangipaen hiyah iskul. It is Maria who sent him to school. Sim: mangipa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nangipa- -an₁ caus. this circumfix encodes a causative, topicalizes and cross-references a place; past tense. Daanay nangipaayan da hanadah dakol an tagu? Where did they send all those people? Sim: pangipa- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nangipa- -an₂ top. this circumfix encodes past tense and cross-references the topicalized agent-subject in a causative topicalization construction. <The agent doing the work is highlighted by syntactic fronting, i.e. placed in the pre-verb position and is cross-referenced by the circumfix.> Dahdiy nangipadngolana? Whom did he let hear it? Hi inay nangipatanomanah bulhe. My mother was the one that he had plant beans. Hi Pedroy nangipagaudana. Pedro was the one that he had spade. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nipa- caus. this prefix encodes a non-agentive passive-causative; past tense. Nipaali nadan bulwatim. Your clothes were brought here. Nipae da Pedro ke Juan ot mibangngad dah kad-an nadan iibba da...(Acts 4:23) Peter and John were released and so they returned to their companions... Sim: mipa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nipa- -an pass. this circumfix encodes passive, causative, topicalization; past tense. Datuwen am-in di nipaannungan nan nitudok nah kalin Apu Dios....(Romans 2:24a) All of these are the fulfillment of the written word of God... Ipaali na boy kolyog ya iwagot na nadan batun nipab-unan tun luta. (Job 9:6) He will again bring an earthquake and he will shake the rocks that are seated on the earth. Sim: mipa- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

numpa- caus. this prefix encodes a causative agent and cross-references that person; past tense. Hi Maria di numpabayu. Maria had rice pounded. Dahdiy numpataluh libutan? Who had the pouch hidden? Nan hakit nay numpapalak ke ha-on. It’s the pain that made me groan. Sim: mumpa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

numpa- -an caus. this circumfix encodes a subject-causative agent with the cross-referencing of a site-object; past tense. [The site-object is often semantically a recipient or beneficiary of the action encoded in the verb.] Nganney ginun-ud yuh eyu numpabaddangan hanadah iEgypt ya iAssyria? (Jeremiah 2:18a) What did you gain by helping the Egyptians and the Assyrians? Hi Herod damdama ya nadan tindaluna ya tinaltalanggaan da ya numpadngolan da. (Luke 23:11) Herod and his soldiers also mocked and ridiculed him (Jesus). Sim: pumpa- -an; Sim: mumpa- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

pa- caus. this prefix encodes a causative agent involvement in the action or activity; it is the basic causative form. <This causative prefix co-occurs in combination with many other affixes.> Adim mo painnay-ayyam te mahapul an mun-istudy kah ustu. You are not going to squander your time. Mipatibo an dakol di page da. This shows that they have rice to spare. Sim: pa- -on. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

pa- -an this circumfix encodes non-past tense and a causative concept; it cross-references the site-object relation rather than the causative agent. Ne nganne, kon pangali yu on paamlonganak kediyen at-atton yu? (Isaiah 57:6c) So what about it, do you think that what you are doing makes me happy? Hin waday mumbagan dakayuh baddang ya idat yuy ibagana ya pabanhan yu nadan bumanon dakayu. (Mateo 5:42) If someone asks you for help, give what they ask for and loan to those who ask to borrow from you. Sim: impa- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

pa- -on (‑on) caus. this circumfix encodes non-past and a causative concept; it cross-references the patient-object relation rather than the causative agent. Hanadan tatagun maka-am-amlong ya paamlongon day ibba da ya paphodon nan maphod an kalyon day gibok nan mangngol. (Proverbs 15:30) The people who are very happy cause their companions to be happy and by the good things they say, they cause those who hear to feel good. Inun-unud day kalina ot pab-unon da nadan tatagu. (Luke 9:15) They followed what he said and had the people sit down. Sim: pa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

pa-at (infl. of at) trans. to copy an action; to imitate; to mimic speech. Adim ipa-at nah inat amam te nihalla. Do not imitate the thing your father did because it is wrong. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.5 - Imitate.)

pa-i (sp. var. pai) 1trans. to destroy. Pa-iyon di puwok nan kinapya takun ab-abung. The storm will destroy the toy house we made. Puma-ih nitanom di dalalu. Hail destroys plants. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 4 Change of structure of object. Syn: bahbah. (sem. domains: 7.9.3 - Destroy.) 2intrans. to disrupt something, e.g. conversation, relationships. Pumappa-i kah te hay tutut mu. You disrupt kinship relationships because of your being quarrelsome. Puma-i kah hummangan mi te nabutog ka. You are disrupting our conversation because you are drunk. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to break an agreement, an extended meaning. Pina-i nay hummangan mi ta idat nad uwani nan binano na. He broke our agreement and so he will pay what he borrowed now. ‑in‑.

pa-iyon di nitaguwan (id. of nitaguwan) debase an idiom that refers to someone or something that will damage or destroy how one lives his life (lit. life will be destroyed).

pangipa- top. this prefix encodes a topicalized causative. Ong-ongal di pangipaamlang di pamhod mun ha-on mu hay mainum. (Song of Songs 4:10b) Your love for me causes greater happiness then wine. Takon nin di kanan yuy nahalman di pangipadayaw mih kalebbengan min muntuttudu ya adiyak bumain te hituwen kalebbengan mi ya pamaddang min dakayu, bokon hay kadadagan yu. (2 Corinth 10:8) Even should you think that our authority to teach gives too much honor to us, I am not ashamed because this authority is meant to help you, not destroy you. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

pangipa- -an caus. this circumfix has a topicalized agent, a causative agent in the subject position in the clause, and a definite cross-referenced object. Dahdiy pangipaalian da nadah liblu? Who will they have bring those books here? Hi Juan di pangipadikhalak nah ongal an kaiw. Juan will be the one that I will have split the big piece of wood. Sim: nangipa- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

pumpa- dervN. this prefix is a causative clausal nominalizing affix. Ya hay gapunan ugge pinihod di iKiangan di Ippangyol ya namahig di pumpaligat da tatagu. The reason the Kiangan people did not like the Spanish is they caused the people great hardship. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.3 - Derivational affixes.)

pumpa- -an this circumfix encodes a causative agent, an agent, and an object of the verbal action; durative time aspect; cross-references topicalized agent. Dahdiy eyu pumpabaddangan? (Isaiah 10:3b) Who can you have help you? Sim: numpa- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

umipa- caus. 1this prefix encodes a causative concept; it co-occurs with emotion verbal roots and cross-references the causer-agent-subject; non-past tense. Umipabungot nan inat Pedrito. The thing Pedrito did makes one angry. Umipatakut ka. You are causing me to fear. Sim: immipa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2this prefix may also co-occur with some stative-process verbal roots and then cross-references the cause of a process. Umipatabay dotag. Meat makes one become fat.

ipi- (sp. var. ipa-) TACR. this prefix encodes a causative; cross-references the object; non-past tense. [This variant of the prefix ipa- usually co-occurs with roots that have the vowel ‘a’ in the first syllable.] Ot ipien Annas hi Jesus an nanongnan nabalud hi kad-an Kaypas an natag-en padi. (Juan 18:24) And then, Annas had Jesus who was still bound taken to Kaypas the high priest. Ot ipipaptok na nadah imbabalenan linalaki. (Genesis 30:35b) And then, he had his sons taken care of them (sheep and goats). Sim: impa-, ipa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

bahbah pass. for something to be destroyed. Nabahbah nan payo da te pinain di liting nan tuping na. Their ricefield was destroyed because the water destroyed the stonewall. na‑. Syn: pa-i. (sem. domains: 7.9.3 - Destroy.) Language of Borrowing: Keley-i Kallahan.

alad 1comm. fence; enclosure of ground. Napa-i nan alad taku. Our fence was destroyed. Inyapana nah kad-an di alad. He jumped into a place near the fence. Sim: iya, luhud. (sem. domains: 6.5.1.5 - Fence, wall.) 2intrans. to build a fence. Mun-alad hi Jose. Jose is building a fence. Umalaka hi lappao ta pun-alad ku. Get some Jerusalem artichoke so that I can use to make a fence. Umalad kah pukungan di gawgawa. Fence a space for a duck pen. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to focus is on what is used for building a fence or what is being fenced. Ialad mu nan bilau. Use the canegrass for in building a fence. Aladon yu nan dola. Build a fence around your yard. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑. 4pass. to be fenced. Naaladan nan ek pangidalanan. The way I will pass by is fenced. ma‑/na‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

amlong happy. 1.1intrans. refers to a feeling of well-being and contentment. Mun-am-amlong nadan aammod na handih nibangngad. His parents were very glad when he returned. muN‑/nuN‑ CV(C)‑. 2C Emotion and sensation. Sim: anla. (sem. domains: 3.4.1.2 - Happy.) 1.2intrans. refers to a happy feeling at a point in time. Umamlong ka ot immalih inam. Be happy because your mother arrived. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1.3sta. to be happy, characterizes someone as being happy. Maam-amlong dan am-in. They are all happy. ma‑ CV(C). 1.4trans. refers to the reason for feeling happy. Adim amlongan di adi maphod. Do not be happy about bad things. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 1.5caus. for someone or something to cause happiness. Hin-uddum ya mangipaamlong an ang-ang-angon di plawer. Sometimes seeing flowers causes one to be happy. Hay inap-apu diday mangipa-amlong hi aammod. Grandchildren cause grandparents to be happy. mangipa‑/nangipa‑.

anhan (sp. var. ahan) adjunct. 1an intensifying polite adjunct; please, sorry. [The word is generally used in a polite request or as a polite emphasis, but may also be used sarcastically. It is used intentionally to evoke particular feelings in the hearer; the context disambiguates the feelings that the speaker intends to evoke.] Toan ten makulug, mu deket makulug, ikabing mu anhan tun tugun ku. Whether or not this is true, I don’t know, but if it is, then, heed my advice. Interpersonal. (sem. domains: 3.3.3.3 - Persuade.) 2to emphasize, related to degree or uniqueness. Hinae anhan nan em ipatipatibo? Is it only that which you are showing off? Makulug anhan nan kinalik. What I said is really true. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.) 3first thing; a priority. Pa-anhanom an aton ni-an nan kinalik ta ahim aton di udum an ngunum. Make what I told you the first thing you do before your other work. pa‑ ‑an. comp. kay-ahan der. ipaanhan der. mangipaanhan infl. paanhanon

bongbong trans. to build a dam; to block water. Bongbongom ni-an nan danum nah payo. You block the water coming out of the field. Ibongbong mu nan luta nah loba. Use the soil/dirt on the slope in damming the water. Pumbongbong da na napa-in banong. They are blocking the water flowing from the destroyed ricefield dike. Bumongbong kah pangiha-adan hi liting. Dam a spot for gathering water. Adi mabongbong te nal-ot nan danum. It cannot be dammed because the current is too strong. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, puN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. 5F Adjacency/Adjoining. (sem. domains: 6.6.7 - Working with water.) infl. mamongbong

dapdapa (infl. of dapa) 1intrans. to grope. Idattan dakah dilag ta adika mundapdapa. I will give you a light so that you won’t have to grope. Deyan mundapdapa hi apum. There is your grandma groping. Deket maid di dilag on mundapdapa ta. When there is no light, we grope in the dark. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 7.3.4.1 - Touch.) 2trans. to grope for something. Nganney dapdapa-om? What are you groping for? ‑on/‑in‑.

dapig trans. to change shape by pressing; to flatten. Dapigom nan kapyaom an tinapay. Flatten the bread you are to bake. Mangapya kah gampa mu dapigom ta nalaka an miagtu. Make a gampa-basket, but make it flat so that it’s easy to carry on the head. Nadapig di nangat mu yaden kanak di mukkolom. You made it flat, yet I told you to round it. Hay nadapig an batuy ialim hitu. Bring a flat stone here. Mungkadapig nan uluna. Its head is becoming flat. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑, mungka‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.)

dingding 1comm. wall of any building, e.g. houses or granaries. Napa-i nan dingding. The wall was destroyed. (sem. domains: 6.5.2.1 - Wall.) 2trans. to build a wall; to put up walls. Ugoy indingding da. They walled-it with fine bamboo. Dingdingan yuh tabla. Wall with the boards. Pundingdingan da. They are walling-it. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, puN‑ ‑an. 4A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 6.5 - Working with buildings.) 3intrans. to place a wall. Mundingding da ad uwani nah balen da Pedro. They are putting up a wall now in the house of Pedro. Dumingding kah kiha-adan nadan u-unga. Wall off a spot for the children to live in. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

gampa 1comm. a basket, all-purpose, big and open and made of rattan or baginge grass or rattan strips. [The basket is used for vegetables, tubers and especially for carrying yam leaves for pigs’ food; it is carried on the head usually by women.] Ihaad mu nan tanghoy nah gampa. You put the water cress in the basket. Sim: kaba, balyag. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2intrans. to use an all-purpose basket. Munggampa ka hin danggu nan igattang mu. Use a gampa-basket if you are going to sell spring-onions. Igampam nan gattuk. Place the sweet potatoes in a gampa-basket. muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑.

iphod (infl. of pohod) trans. to fix or repair something. <Morphology: The form paka-ip-iphod, is superlative, to fix perfectly> Iphod muy adol mu te mangali day tatagun e mangidung-on he-a. Fix yourself up because people are coming to visit you. Mahapul an mun-iphodak hi bale mi te dandani moy Krismas. I’ve got to fix up things at home because Christmas is almost here. Adiyak pakaiphod tuh napa-in ubunan. I cannot repair this destroyed seat. i‑/iN‑, muN‑ i‑, pakai‑. 3I Direct action toward an object. (sem. domains: 8.3.7.6 - Improve.) infl. mangip-iphod

kalimuwan di algo (n. ph. of limu) n. the direction where the sun disappears below the horizon; west. Numpa-i da nah kalimuwan di algo. They went towards the west. Sim: daya. (sem. domains: 8.5.2.8 - North, south, east, west.)

kullipaw (sp. var. kulippo) 1comm. shellfish species, edible; found in creeks and ricefields. Mumpa-pait di kullipaw. The kullipaw-shellfish is a bit bitter. Sim: hiyok, aggudung. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.5 - Fish.) 2trans. to gather kullipaw-shellfish. Mangullipaw ka ta mangan ikamo taku nah tanghoy. Gather the kullipaw-shellfish so that we will add it to the water cress. maN‑/naN‑.

kuwiwwiw comm. shellfish, small, three-turned-shell; bitter tasting tail. Munpa-pait di kuwiwwiw. The kuwiwwiw-snail is bitter. Sim: ginga, battikul, kohol. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.5 - Fish.)

law-in trans. to throw something away so that it lands at a distance below from where one is standing. Ilaw-in mu tun napa-in basket ad da-udaul Throw away this destroyed basket far down below. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. (sem. domains: 7.3.1.1 - Throw.)

makina comm. machine; engine. Napa-i nan makina nan tolak. The truck’s engine is destroyed. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: maquina.

puluy 1comm. direction. Munpa-ed dawa di puluy nan dibdib. The direction of the wind was towards the west. 2trans. to move in a certain direction. <The direction component is so important, it makes the verb transitive.> Nalakan inilaon nan puluyon di dibdib hin waday kaiw an pangiang-angan. It’s easy to know the direction of the wind if there is a tree by which we can see it. Inipluy nadan binabaih kad-an mi. The women came in our direction. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/ini‑.

tinapa comm. a type of dried fish. Ne inid-um di sagpaw an tinapa weno sardinas. Then, add tinapa-fish or sardines. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

tudu₁ intrans. to drip, the dripping of rain through a leak in a roof; for a root to leak. Muntuduy bale mi. Our house is leaking. Muntuduh bale. Water drips from our roof. Tumudu nah kusina hin umudan te napa-i nan atop. It will drip in the kitchen if it rains because the roof is destroyed. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1B Movement with a directional component. Sim: tuliyok, ton’o, todtod.