payung 1comm. umbrella. Maid payung na kinali nakattina. She had no umbrella that is why she was very wet. E appa, naka-liwan Fely payung na. Oh dear, Fely forgot her umbrella. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to use an umbrella. Mumpayung ka te mun-udan. Use an umbrella because it’s raining. Payungam nan imbabalem ta adi matina. Use an umbrella over your child so that he will not be wet. Ipayung mu nan payung na. Use her umbrella. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.
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appa (sp. var. ap’a) interj. 1expression of apology, surprise, dismay; Oops! Appa ya ugge daka tinibo. Oops, I did not see/notice you. Interjection. Sim: appaw. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.) 2an interjection that expresses concern; oh dear, oh my. E appa, naka-liwan Fely payung na. Oh dear, Felay forgot her umbrella. Appa, ta ayagan dakami. Oh dear, they might call us. Interjection.
bokyag trans. to open and spread out, e.g. umbrella. Bokyagom nan payung. You open the umbrella. Bumokyag kah mapmaphod. Open and spread out something which is better. Adi mabokyag te napai. It cannot be opened and spread because it is broken. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. Sim: bitbit. (sem. domains: 7.3.6 - Open.)
dadag destroy. 1.1trans. refers to the destruction of concrete objects; may also refer to people or their reputations; to ruin; to destroy; to damage. Adim dadagon nan intanom ku. Do not destroy what I planted. Wada boppoy ginattang kuh ay-ayyam on dinadag mu. Whatever toy that I buy, you destroy it. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of an object . (sem. domains: 7.9.3 - Destroy.) 1.2pass. the passive form refers to the state of being damaged or destroyed, without an agent. Madadag am-in di nitanom te itotool nay udan. All the plants will be damaged because it keeps raining. Nadadag nan ingkail ku te makudang di inha-ad kun binokbok. The rice wine I prepared is ruined because I did not put enough yeast into it. ma‑/na‑. 1.3mod. expresses the facility with which an undergoer-object can be put into a condition or state; easily destroyed. Kadinaddag tun payung te nalakay nangatang ku. This umbrella is easily destroyed because I bought it for a low price. ka‑ ‑inn‑. 1.4nom. the derived noun refers to the concept of destruction. Hay tumbuk di kadadagan di dakol an tagu. It is gossip that is the destruction (reputation) of many men. ka‑ ‑an. 1.5trans. to destroy, with an added component of having the ability to do this. Dumadag hi bale nan puwok an umali. The storm that is coming can destroy houses. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.
dammu (sp. var. damu) 1to meet. 1.1trans. to encounter someone in particular; to meet. Em dammuwon hi inam. Go and meet your mother. Dinammuwak nah muyung. He met me in the forest. Hidiy nanammuwanan nadah bumdang kediyen hilong. There is where he had encountered the bumdang-spirit the night before. ‑on/‑in‑ , nan‑ ‑an. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 7.2.3 - Move toward something.) 1.2trans. to meet someone with something; what is being taken is in view. Idammu yu nan payung te mun-udan. Meet him with the umbrella because it’s raining. Mangali ta ahan ya pun-idammum di mahakit an kali. I am just arriving and you are meeting/greeting me with harsh words. i‑/iN‑, puN‑ i‑. 1.3rec. to meet each other. Nundammu da nah kalata. They met on the street. Dahdiy mundammu ke he-a? Who will meet you? muN‑/nuN‑. 1.4trans. meeting place. Daanay pundammuwan yu? Where will you meet? puN‑ ‑an. 2trans. may refer to meeting trouble or difficulty; may also refer to two inanimate objects being brought together to be adjacent. Tibom ta adim dammuwon ad-adin maat. Be careful (lit. see to it) that you don’t meet with something bad. ‑on/‑in‑.
dangkig trans. to place something by propping it against something else; to prop. Idangkig mu nan patanong mu nah tukud. Prop your walking stick against the wooden post. Idangkig ku nan payung nah panto. I propped the umbrella against the door. Adika midangkig ke ha-oy te madam-ot ka. Don’t lean against me because you are heavy. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. 3A Move and position object at site. Sim: handag. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.)
duluk intrans. to walk in the rain. Munduluk dan umanamut te maid di payung da. They are going to walk in the rain in going home because they do not have any umbrellas. Induluk na te mungkahilong. He walked in the rain because it was getting dark. Mundullukan da nadan u-unga. The children are playing in the rain. muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑.
1this circumfix encodes the modal concept of something that can be easily done; facility; describes the state or condition of something that facilitates an action or process. Kadinnaddag tun payung te nalakay nangatang ku. This umbrella is easily destroyed because I bought it for a low price. Kaginnabyon nan luta. That soil can be easily hoed. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Verb affixes.) 2encodes the modal concept of someone who has a tendency toward emotional or physical affects. Kabinnungot hi amana ten nabutong. His father tends to be angry when he is drunk. Kadinnoggoh inana. Her mother tends to be sickly. . mod
liwan trans. to forget something. E appa, naka-liwan Fely payung na. Oh dear, Fely forgot her umbrella. Om ta-wan naka-liwak Yes, I really did forget. naka‑.
paga trans. to beat with a stick. Apa, dahdiy em pagaon? Oh, whom will you beat? Ipagam nan payung hi tokona hin kumalikali. Hit her mouth with the umbrella if she keeps on talking. Adik pinhod an indallan hina te pumaga nan mun-ango. I do not want to pass there because the crazy person will hit with a stick. Pumpaga na nan kama ta mag-a nadan kitob. He was beating the bed so that the bedbugs will fall. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, puN‑. 4B Tactile - Touch. Sim: bakdung, huplit. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.)
pamga (sp. var. pamaga) 1trans. to do without caution; tactlessly or carelessly done. Adim pamga hi kali. Do not be tactless with your words. Impamga nah haad nan payung kinali natalak. She placed the umbrella carelessly, that is why it got lost. i‑/iN‑. 2adv. expresses a limiting concept. Adiyak pakaippol an ek pamgay op-opya. I cannot endure just keeping quiet. Limiting and maximizing. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Attitude.)
udot adjunct. 1expressing perplexity. An daana udot di pangal-am hi em itugatugal? Where do you get the money to be continuously gambling. Kon adita udot mundogoh athitu? Why, won’t one get sick that way? Uggek bo udot inila nan kali da. I didn’t even know their language. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 3.2.4 - Understand.) 2expression of what is contrary to expectation; something is unusual. Tipe udot ta em alan di bulwatik. Why in the world do you take my clothes? Tibom ke udot din ungan nala-ing an munsala. You see, that child is unusually good in dancing. 3envious expression of displeasure; displeased. [The udot in this sentence expresses some sarcasm and jealousy. The true English equivalent would be a sarcastic intonational contour.] Inay udot man-un he-a te dakol di pihhum. It’s fine for you because you have plenty of money! 4expression of surprise. Kayang udot waday payung mu! Hey! Good for you, you’ve got an umbrella! der. mah-udot
uh-u₁ trans. 1to confirm the truth of something; to prove; to witness to the truth. In-uh-u na nan kinalim. He confirmed what you said. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. Sim: hadak. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Witness, testify.) 2to search for something; to trace something, e.g. trace a borrowed item. Em ya uh-uwon nan nangalah payung ku. Go and search for the person who took my umbrella. Em uh-uwon di nangalah gangha yu. Go find out who really got your gong. Em uh-uwon hin dahdi nunbano nan uwa. Go and find out who borrowed my knife. ‑on/‑in‑.