potang 1comm. refers to the light of the sun. Mahapiit di potang. The sunshine is causing a stinging sensation. Maid di potang te mungkukulabut. There’s no sunshine because it’s cloudy. Sim: big’at, pat-al, algo₂, dilag. (sem. domains: 8.3.3 - Light.) 2intrans. the sun gives light; the sun shines. Pumtang hi bigat di dakol di bittuwon ad uwani. The sun will shine tomorrow because there are many stars now. Ugge pinumtang dih biggatna. The sun didn’t shine this morning. Em ihap-e nan kape te deyan pinumtang. Go dry the coffee for the sun is now shining. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2F Meteorological. 3sta. to be in the sunlight; this implies the sun will have an affect on a person. “Mapopotangan ka ya abuh di,” inhumang amana. “You will just be standing in the sun.” answered his father. Nakaptang nan golang te ugge imme nah hidum. The child stayed under the sun too long because he did not go under the shade. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an, naka‑.
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algo₂ 1comm. sun. Hinaniyan nan kulabut nan algo. The cloud hid the sun. Sim: big’at, pat-al, dilag, potang. (sem. domains: 1.1.1 - Sun.) 2intrans. shining of the sun. Umalgo ke ya eka mumbalbal. If the sun shines, go and wash clothes. Mun-algo kat adi ka maktol. Stay under the sun so you will not will cold. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to put something in the sun in order to dry or warm it. Ek ialgoy buuk ku ta mamag-anan. I’ll go to dry my hair under the sun. i‑/iN‑. der. ma-al-algo der. umalgo ph. v. nalimuy algo
big’at (fr. var. bigbigat; sp. var. biggat) 1comm. the following day; tomorrow. <
> Ahika umalih bigat. You come here tomorrow. Pumtang hi bigat te dakol di bittuwon ad uwani. The sun will shine tomorrow because there are many stars now. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52.2 - Yesterday, today, tomorrow.) 2proc. becoming light in the morning; dawning. Mungkabigat handih dimmatong kami. It was about to be daylight when we arrived. Handih mungkabigat ya imme da nadah kipustuwan. When dawn came, they took their posts in strategic places. mungka‑. Sim: pat-al, algo₂, dilag, potang. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206.3 - Time of the day.) der. kabigabigat der. kabigatana der. mabigat der. mungkabigat infl. nabigat The co-occurring determiner hi is obligatory.
dilag 1comm. artificial light. Maid di dilag ku. I have no light. Sim: big’at, pat-al, algo₂, potang. (sem. domains: 8.3.3 - Light.) 2trans. to use a light. Eda mundilag hi bakbak. They are going to use a light and catch frogs. Mundilag hi baleda handi hilong. Their house was lit up last night. Maid di idilag ku. I have no light-to-use. Dilagan yu nan dalan. Provide a light for the path. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑.
pat-al sta. 1the light or brightness of sun, moon or artificial light. Pimmat-al nah daulon handi kinaan da nan kaiw nah loba. The space under the house became bright when they felled the tree on the slope. Mapat-al nah daulon. It is light under the house. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. 6D Process or state of inanimate objectss. Sim: big’at, algo₂, dilag, potang. (sem. domains: 8.3.3 - Light.) 2to be daytime; refers to the hours when the sun is shining. Adi muntayyapan nah mapat-al. It does not fly during the day. (referring to bats) der. mapat-al
deke on (comp. of deke, on) conj. marks an event or action that is contingent or dependent on another action or event. <
> Ya initpoitpol kuy potang nah mapat-al ya kotol nah hilong ya deket on matukatukalak. I have endured the heat of the sunshine, the cold at night and whenever I have been staying awake. Bokon ha-on nan tagun deke on bumtik ta e mitalu. I am not the kind of person to run away in order to be hidden. Compounding conjunctions and adjuncts. (sem. domains: 9.6.2 - Dependency relations, 220.127.116.11 - Condition.) comp. deke on peman This is a compound of the conjunction deke and the linker-determiner on .
hili₁ intrans. 1(fig) to dazzle the eyes. [This is probably a figurative sense of hili - ‘pepper’ with the extended meaning that a bright light stings the eyes like a pepper stings the mouth.] Hiliyom nan puha nah hilong ot uggena inilay payuwana. Dazzle the cat at night and it does not know where it will go. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 8.3.3 - Light.) 2glaring light. Humihhiliy potang. The glaring sunlight hurts the eyes. Nahiliyak hi potang kinali adiyak pakaang-ang hi ustu. The glare of the sun hurt my eyes so that I cannot see clearly. ‑um‑, na‑.
hukyung 1comm. veil; any covering for head or any piece of hat resembling a veil. Maingit di hukyung na. Her head-cover is red. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2trans. to cover head, usually for protection. Ihukyung mu tun tuwalya. Use this towel to cover your head. Hukyungam nan golang te munhipuk. Put a cover on the baby’s head because it’s drizzling. Munhukyung ka te potang. Cover your head because it’s hot. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. id. pinhod ku nan nunhukyung nah pikdol
humang to answer or converse. 1.1to answer a comment or question. 1.1.1intrans. to answer; to reply. <
> Nomnomom on ahika himmumang. Think before you answer. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Speech verbs. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168.1 - Answer, 22.214.171.124 - Ask.) 1.1.2trans. to answer. < The infix gives prominence to the action of answering. > An hinaey ihumang mun ha-oy? Is that your answer to me? “Mapopotangan ka ya abuh di,” inhumang amana. “You will just be standing in the sun,” answered his father. “Om, mama” inhumang nadan iimbabalena. “Yes, mama,” the children answered. i‑/iN‑. 1.1.3trans. to answer someone. < The prefix cross-references the object, the words used to answer. > Ek ot humangon mu uggek te tinibok an bimmoh-ol. I was about to answer him but I didn’t because I saw that he was angry. Humangom nan kinalina. Answer what he said. ‑on/‑in‑. 1.2trans. to converse; talk together; to make an agreement. Munhummangan kayu. You converse with each other. “Makulug, ina. Tinibo mi. Nakihummangan pay ke dakami,” kanak. “It’s true, mother! I saw her. She even talked to us,” I said. Nakihummangan hi uncle ot magibbuy nunhummanganan da ot tumayan kamih di. My uncle spoke to him about his woodcarvings and when they finished their conversation, we left there. Indai ot ya abut mangalin nahho- wa-el, inang ay, waday munhuhummangan. Later on, he was approaching the er...creek, he saw...there were voices conversing. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an, maki‑ ‑an/naki‑ ‑an. infl. hummangan infl. munhuhummangan The object is cross-referenced with either the person or his words having referential prominence.
1this prefix encodes past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross-references the direct object with the conveyed semantic role; it is a member of the default affix set for Class 3 verbal roots. Inha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They placed the basket in our house. Sim: i-₁. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Verb affixes.) 2this prefix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it derives a transitive verb when it co-occurs with Class 1A intransitive movement verbal roots and cross-references an object that moves with the agent, e.g. to bring something or to take something. In-alik nan liblum. I brought your book. 3this prefix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross-references an instrument object with Class 4 verbal roots. Indikhal na nan matadom an wahe. He used the sharp ax to split wood. 4this prefix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect and expresses a manner component related to the phrase or clause in the direct object NP position of the main clause. Initpol nay takut nan kananah nomnom nay kapyana nin. He endured/controlled his fear and thought maybe that’s just its nature. Indalan da Bugan nah papayo. Bugan and her mother walked through the ricefields. 5this prefix encodes past tense; co-occurs with a time aspect adverbial predicate and cross-references the clause embedded in the object NP position of the main clause. Intuluy nan mangan inggana nabhug. He continued to eat until he was satisfied. Intikod nan muntugal te binungotan ama na. He stopped gambling because his father scolded him. 6this prefix encodes non-past tense, derives a verb from a noun, and the object is usually incorporated though a specific object may be explicit and cross-referenced. In-akbut na nan bulwati na. He backpacked his clothes. 7this prefix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it co-occurs with speech verbs and cross references the object that refers to what is said. “Mapopotangan ka ya abuh di,” inhumang amana. You will just be standing in the sun,” answered his father. Inun-unud day imbagan Pablo ot ahi pumhod nan unga. They did what Pablo told them and the child got well. . TACR
kuleng sta. to be withered, referring to plants. Makuleng di intanom ku te namahig di potang. What I planted will wither because it’s too sunny. Nakuleng nan buttatan inalan nan ungah payo. The chinese cabbage that the child got from the field is withered. Uggem dinanuman nan flower te inang-ang ku ya mungkakuleng. You did not water the flower because I saw it and it was withering. Nanginkukuleng nan intanom kuh tu kaiw. The tree that I planted here withered easily. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: malyo. (sem. domains: 1.5.6 - Growth of plants.) infl. mungkakleng
ma- -an 1sta. non-past stative circumfix form. An adika maagangan? Don’t you ever feel hungry? Mapopotangan ka ya abuh di, inhumang amana. You will just be standing in the sun.” answered his father. Maanlaanak an mundawdaw-en nah bungana on kinkinnan ku. I enjoyed picking and eating the fruit. Sim: na- -an. 2pass. non-past passive form; focuses the site with Class 3 verb roots. Maha-adan nan basket hi makan. The basket will have some food placed in it. Mabalbalan di ha-ikan. The doormat can be washed.
taddung 1comm. refers to any type of hat. Alam nan taddung te potang. Get the hat because it is hot. spec: helmet. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2intrans. to wear a hat. Muntaddung ka tedeyan munhipuk. Wear a hat because it is drizzling. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to place a hat on someone or use a particular hat. Itaddung mu nan kinapyan Matima. Use the hat made by Matima. Taddungam nan golang ta ahi kayu lumah-un. Put a hat on the child before you go out. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something.