Search results for "tibo"

makattibo (infl. of tibo) adjunct. obviously; clearly seen; implies that anyone should be able to understand an action or event. Makattibo an munlangkak ka. It is very clear that you are lying. maka‑ C‑. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 3.2.4 - Understand.) id. makattibo mo ahan

makattibo mo ahan (id. of makattibo) obviously; characterizes something as being clearly understood. Syn: makainnila mo ahan.

matibo (infl. of tibo) trans. something can be seen. Matibon mundogo. It could be seen that she was sick. Kon matiboy bibiyo? Can a fairy be seen? ma‑.

tibo (sp. var. tigo) 1to see. 1.1trans. to see or look at something. Tinibona. He saw it. Tinibo mi an hay nidadaan ya abu ya duwan palangganan hinamal. We saw that what was prepared for us were two basins of rice. Iwingim ad Lagawe ta tibom an waday dilag da. Turn your head towards Lagawe and see whether they have lights. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: buya, ang-ang; spec: tokkol. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.) 1.2trans. to search, looking for something. Eda manibo nadan nangipaptok ke tuweh udum an makan mu maid. Those in charge tried to look for more food but nothing was left. Manibo dah ohan magangan ongngal an kaiw They search for a large, hard-wood tree maN‑/naN‑. 1.3trans. to look toward a particular place. Itibom hitu. Look this way. Intibon ama nah pottok nan pumpangituludan dan hiya. My father looked in the direction where they were pushing him. i‑/iN‑ . 2trans. to watch over more than one object. Pakitibom tun basket ku. Watch my basket (along with yours). paki‑. 3caus. to cause something to be seen; to show something. Ipatibom. Show it. (lit. cause it to be seen) ipa‑/impa‑. 4pass. something can be seen very clearly; obvious. Hay bahul mu ya makattibo. Your fault can be clearly seen. makaC‑. (sem. domains: 3.2.3.1 - Known, unknown.) der. kitib-anan id. mahakit di panibo infl. makattibo infl. manibo infl. matibo

tibom ot advpred. to advise someone to be careful to avoid problems or trouble; to look out. Tibom ot boy pihhum te matalak man. Be careful with your money because it might get lost again. Manner. (sem. domains: 4.4.2 - Trouble.)

Un-unudon taku nan ipatpatibon di gutul. We follow the example of the ants. [This implies that ants are a good example of working hard.] (sem. domains: 3.5.4.2 - Saying, proverb.)

ang-ang 1to look. Sim: tibo, buya. 1.1trans. to direct one’s eyes in order to visually perceive something. Ang-angok di manayo. I’ll look at the dancers. I-ang-angam hi bulwatih inam. Look for a dress for your mother. Uggan mu ang-ang-angon din niha-ang ta ek ang-angon din golang. Once in a while, look at what is being cooked so that I can go and see how the baby is. Sim: buya. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.) 1.2trans. to spend time looking for someone or something, a durative activity is in view. Mun-ang-ang kah ibbam. Look for a companion. muN‑/nuN‑. 2comm. the appearance of a person or thing. Maphod di ang-ang nan pinaot na. The appearance of his wood carving is good. (sem. domains: 2.3.1.8 - Appearance.) infl. maang-ang

buya₂ intrans. to watch; to look on as of a by-stander or spectator; to watch something, e.g. a show or spectacle. Imme nadan u-ungan mumbuya hi ay-ayyam. The children went to watch a game. Buyaon dakan mun-ay-ayyam. We will watch you play. Maid di mabuya ad uwani. There is nothing to be watched now. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. Sim: tibo, ang-ang; Sim: ang-ang. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

makainnila mo ahan (ph. v. of inila) adjunct. obviously; clearly. Makainnila mo ahan an adida pinhod. Obviously they don’t want it. maka‑. Attitudinal. Syn: makattibo mo ahan. (sem. domains: 3.2.5 - Opinion.)

tokkol (sp. var. tokol) 1trans. to stare at someone or something continuously; to observe or look at someone searchingly. Itokkol mun ha-on. Look me in the eye. Antipet itottokol mu. Why do you keep staring at me. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. gen: tibo. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.) 2rec. to stare at each other. Muntokkolan da an maid di kumkummali. They are staring at each other without talking. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an.

‑um‑ 1TACR. this infix is a default affix for Class 2 verbal roots; non-past tense, punctiliar aspect; cross references the subject. Umali nah langtay ya inang-ang nah Lammooy an dimpanay takle nat iadi nanno umeh Pangka. He came to the bridge and he saw Lammooy who extended his arm preventing Pangka to pass. Sim: ‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2TACR. when affixed to transitive verbs, this infix encodes non-past and punctiliar aspect; it cross-references subject and expresses partitive quantification of the undergoer object. Umidat ka nah kankannom an tinapay. Give me some of the food you are eating. Kumaan ka nah dotag ta ihaang mu. Slice some of that meat and cook it. Sim: umi-. 3proc. when affixed to Class 6 verbs, this infix encodes a process incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Inun-unud day imbagan Pablo ot ahi pumhod nan unga. They did and the child got well. Wumotwot di tugal. Gambling makes a person become poor. 4TACR. this infix derives an intransitive process verb from a noun or adjective; it encodes incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Hay humagabi ya hay kadangyan. The man who performs the hagabi-ceremony must be rich. Deket maid di dayakkot ya adi dumanum nan ikail. If there is no glutinous rice to mix in, the preparation will not produce any juice at all. 5TACR. this infix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar or inceptive aspect and cross-references subject. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Matibon mundogo, ot ibagana nadah aammod nan umayag dah mamakko. She was not evidently in good health so he advised the parents to call for a mamakko-shaman. Deket e mangan, umukmun ni-an hi mahampot an tubun di holok. Before it eats, it first swallows coarse grass.

a-o comm. 1reflected image in water, glass, or mirror. Tibom key a-om nah danum. Look at your reflection in the water. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.4 - Pattern, model.) 2shadow. Mungkadukkey a-o te mungkalimu nan algo. The shadows are lengthening because the sun is setting. Nakakkuugak an kay mo a-oy ang-ang ku. I am so thin that my appearance is now like a shadow. (sem. domains: 8.3.3.2.1 - Shadow.)

aamm’od (infl. of ammod) comm. 1elders; ancestors; forefathers. [The traditional religion has been based on beliefs handed down by the Ifugao ancestors.] Hanadan aammod takuy nangapyah payo handih done. It was our ancestors who made the rice fields long ago. Hay pangi-e takud uwani ya nipuun hi pangi-en di aammod taku handi. Our ways today are based on the ways of our ancestors. Apu, damanan tontonom hanadan aammod ku? Grandfather, can you trace my ancestors? (sem. domains: 4.1.9.1 - Related by birth.) 2those who give birth to next generation; parents. Matibon mundogo, ot ibagana nadah aammod nan umayag dah mamakko. She was evidently not in good health. So he advised the parents to call for a mamakko-shaman. Imakaiw di aammod na. His parents are from the forested place.

abu 1adv. (prim) an adverb that limits and minimizes whatever concept that it modifies, e.g. an action, process, number, emotion. <Morphology: Derivation and compounding are common word formation processes with this morpheme.> Ha-on ya abu di ume. I only will go. Hanada ya abu makahhapul muy gatangom. Spend only for things that you really need. Tinibo mi an hay nidadaan ya abu ya duwan palangganan hinamal. We saw that what was prepared for us was only two basins of rice. Limiting and maximizing. Sim: ampod. (sem. domains: 9.2.2 - Adverbs.) 2adv. (sec) an expression of restriction or limitation. Abu moh nae! Stop that! Abu moy kumodokodoh pihhu. Enough of your begging for money! 3trans. can become a derived verb that cross-references an object. Bokon ya abuwan datuwey matibod Manila. These are not the only things seen in Manila. comp. abuna comp. adin-abu comp. ot ya abu der. ab-abbu der. abuwan der. abuy

abuwan (der. of abu) advpred. this predicate expresses the idea that there is only one reason for what someone is doing or the only thing that is involved; the affix cross-references the action or thing. {This is a modality adverbial predicate that modifies an action.} Hay abuwan tun at-atton dan dakamid uwani ya dog-alon dakami tuh boble. The only thing that they want to do to us now is to drive us away from this barrio. Bokon ya abuwan datuwey matibod Manila. These are not the only things that can be seen in Manila. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Limiting or minimalizing. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.3.3 - Unique.)

alipuhhapu comm. small rotating wind, inward and upward motion; dust devil; small whirlwind; seen on the streets or dusty, open grounds. Hin tialgo ya waday uggan matibon alipuhhapu nah kalata. During summer, sometimes dust devils can be seen on the streets. muN‑. (sem. domains: 1.1.3.1 - Wind.)

am-in adj. all; referring to people, i.e. everyone, or things, i.e. everything. Makakkaphodan am-in di matiboh tu. Everything that is seen here is beautiful. Am-in on ipabahul nan ha-oy. He blames me for everything. Nun-ampuyo kamin am-in an binabai. All of us women wore the Ifugao skirt. Number quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.1.6 - Whole, complete, 8.1.5 - All.)

aN- (sp. var. a-) adj. this prefix inflects adjectives that are dimension quantifiers. Ambiambilog ya dakkodakkol di tatagu. It is very wide and there are many people. (refers to Manila) Umala da nan tataguh andukken hapang ta ihamad dan igakod nan hagabih di. The men in the forest look for a long, sturdy branch or pole and to that, they tie the hagabi-bench. Nikuyug nadah adi matibon iibbana ot adukkey danallanon da. He travelled with his unseen companions for a long way. (sem. domains: 9.2.9 - Affixes.)

anhan (sp. var. ahan) adjunct. 1an intensifying polite adjunct; please, sorry. [The word is generally used in a polite request or as a polite emphasis, but may also be used sarcastically. It is used intentionally to evoke particular feelings in the hearer; the context disambiguates the feelings that the speaker intends to evoke.] Toan ten makulug, mu deket makulug, ikabing mu anhan tun tugun ku. Whether or not this is true, I don’t know, but if it is, then, heed my advice. Interpersonal. (sem. domains: 3.3.3.3 - Persuade.) 2to emphasize, related to degree or uniqueness. Hinae anhan nan em ipatipatibo? Is it only that which you are showing off? Makulug anhan nan kinalik. What I said is really true. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.) 3first thing; a priority. Pa-anhanom an aton ni-an nan kinalik ta ahim aton di udum an ngunum. Make what I told you the first thing you do before your other work. pa‑ ‑an. comp. kay-ahan der. ipaanhan der. mangipaanhan infl. paanhanon

ani harvest. 1.1trans. to harvest a crop. Maphod di luta dat dakol di aniyon da. Their ground is good so they will harvest much ‑on/‑in‑. Sim: apit. (sem. domains: 1.5.6 - Growth of plants.) 1.2intrans. used to refer to the time of harvesting. Hana keh etaku pun-aniyan ya tibon yut maanin am-in nan page. When we harvest, see to it that all the rice is harvested. puN‑ ‑an, ma‑. 1.3n. usually refers to harvesting a rice crop but the word may also be used for harvesting other crops or fruit. comp. ahiani say. Hay itanom mu ya hidiyey aniyom.

anninito (sp. var. anninitu) comm. a kind of spirit. [Believed to live in the east and west; anninitud daya; anninitud lagud.] Kanan day umikodkod di anninitu. They say that anninito-spirits hold peoples’ souls. Kanan day dakol di anninito nah ongal an batu. They say that there are spirits in the big stone. Dakol di adi matibon anninitu nah wa-el. There are many unseen spirits in the creek. Sim: bibiy’o, pinading, bumdang, mabdang. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: anito.

antam intrans. sour; for something to have a sour taste. Maantam di tibona. It looks sour. Mun-antam di tamtam na. It tastes sour. Umantam te nadang-o. It is becoming sour because it is spoiled. Immantam nan ihda handi inudman dah suka. The viand became sour when they added vinegar. ma‑, muN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: lan-u, nginul. (sem. domains: 2.3.3 - Taste.)

ap’uy 1comm. the burning of a substance resulting in a chemical reaction which releases heat and light; fire. Nad-op nan apuy. The fire went out. Kanak pe on no abunay apuy ya kanan gayam ot takon hidiyen lata ya mun-anidu ta. I thought that it is only a fire, even though that is a can, and we can be warmed. Sim: banawat. (sem. domains: 5.5.4 - Burn, 5.5 - Fire.) 2trans. to start a fire by specifying the firewood to be used. Em apuyan din itungu ne uggan mu tibon hin maphod di apuy na. Go and build a fire with that firewood and see to it that the fire burns well. Adi matiboy tokona ya kumalat. (apuy) You cannot see its mouth but it bites. (fire)(riddle) ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3intrans. to build a fire. Mun-apuy ka. You build a fire. muN‑/nuN‑. id. bimmalay apuy da id. inda-i ta bumalay apuy da id. kay naapuyan di tokok

ayuduk trans. to creep under; to bend over under something.; to walk bent over under something. Iayuduk mu nah mabilau ta ahika dumatong. You have to creep under the thick canegrass before you will reach your destination. Ayodukom nan bola nah daulon. Creep to retrieve the ball under the house. Eka mun-ayuduk nah daulon ta tibom nan nag-a. You go under the house and look for the one that fell. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, mun‑/nuN‑. Sim: uduk. (sem. domains: 7.2.1.1 - Walk.)

baba 1comm. refers to a place of lower elevation. Immeh baba te waday ena tibon. He went down because he went to see someone. Sim: da-ul. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.5 - Move down.) 2intrans. to get down; to go below. Bumaba kah na. Get down from there. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3proc. the process of something becoming lower, whatever has degrees of elevation or levels. Hay importanten punggastuwam ya nadan liblun mahapul mu ta maid di humlun hi bumabaan di grades mu. What is important is that your spending should be for those books you need so that nothing will cause your grades to be lowered. Bimmaba day magatang. They lowered (the price) of what was being sold. 2G Processes. 4trans. (sec) to lower one’s status. i‑/iN‑.

bagit comm. the black horizontal stripes woven into a man’s hip-bag. [These black threads are thicker than the ordinary thread used in weaving so the stripes stand out.] Makattiboy bagit nan pinuhha. The horizontal black stripe in the hip-bag can be clearly seen. (sem. domains: 8.3.3.3 - Color.)

bak’ug 1sta. hunchbacked. Mabakug dah gagala nadan aammod an mungngunuh payo te iyuyuung da. Those parents who work the ricefields become hunchbacked because they are bent-over everyday. ma‑. (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.) 2trans. to hunch the back; slouch; bent from waist. Adim bakbakuggon te ad-adin tibon. Do not hunch your back because it is not good to look at. ‑on/‑in‑ CV(C)‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.1.8 - Bend down.)

bakbak 1comm. frog. Manling day bakbak ten umudan. The frogs croak when it rains. Nakangalay bakbak nah hilong. The frogs are very noisy especially at night. spec: tokyang, battug, tukak. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.3 - Reptile.) 2comm. a lot of frogs. Kabakbabakbak di matiboh iggatang dah di. It’s all frogs that can be seen which are sold there. 3trans. to catch frogs. maN‑/naN‑. der. mamakbak id. kay da nadulhukan nan bakbak

ballambag sta. 1elongated shape; referring to geometrical shape. Hay ke tibon di itlug ya nabalambag. The shape of an egg is oblong. ma‑/na‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 8.3.1 - Shape.) 2to place something in a horizontal position. Ballambagan yuh tabla nan kanal. Place a board across the canal. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

baluketket (sp. var. balukitkit) trans. to sort through a pile or collection in search for something. Baluketketom nadan bulwati nah kalton ta tibon nan maingit an kamahhita. Sort through the clothes in the box to look for the red shirt. Binaluketket ku nan kad-an di bulwati te ek hamakon nan bulwatih maingit. I sorted through the clothes because I was looking for my red dress. Deyan binaluketket mun am-in ya deket waday hinamak muh kanam hi bagim. There, you have searched through everything so say if you found something that belongs to you. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.6.1 - Search.)

banawol comm. chimney swift; a bird grey in color, swift in flying. Naligat an matiboy banawol on imme te nal-ot an tumayap. It is difficult to see the banawol-bird when it goes because it is swift in flying. Apodidae (sem. domains: 1.6.1.2 - Bird.)

banbanilag (sp. var. banilag) 1comm. flame-like lights which appear, move, multiply and disappear. [It is believed that spirits are roaming around when the lights appear. The appearance of the lights is sometimes like a flame and sometimes like a smoldering torch.] Deket nahilong ya ahi matibo nadan banbanilag nah kawad-an di wangwang. When it is dark, you can see the flame-like appearnace of spirits near the river. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) 2intrans. to twinkle. Waday mumbanbanilag nah kad-an di ob-ob. There is something twinkling near the spring. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 8.3.3 - Light.)

bangga trans. to bump into something; to crash into something. Adim ibangga nan talak. Do not bump the car into anything. Mabangga ka hin adim tibon di dalnom. You will bump into something if you don’t look where you are going. i‑/iN‑, ma‑/na‑. 3E Move an object directionally. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog. infl. mumbangga

basta adjunct. anyway; anyhow; just. Basta adika munpatibo. Just do not show yourself. Attitudinal. Sim: nama-ag. Language of Borrowing: Spanish.

batt’ong (sp. var. batong) 1comm. fishing net. a net used for fishing long ago; no longer used or known today. [A net used for fishing long ago; it is no longer used or known today.] Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Ugge inilan di tatagu hin nganney tibon di battong. People today do not know what a battong-net looks like. 2trans. to catch in a net; extended meaning Binattong dah Guminnigin. They caught Guminnigin in their nets. {literary} ‑in‑.

batweng₁ 1comm. scale for weighing, implies a balancing of weight. [When men carry rice bundles on a batawil-pole, they balance the weight of the bundles at both ends.] (sem. domains: 8.2.8 - Measure.) 2trans. to weigh on a scale Batwengonak ta tibok di dam-ot ku. Weigh me so I’ll know how heavy I am. ‑on/‑in‑.

bay comm. an inlet of the sea containing a body of water contiguous with the sea. Ingkuyukuyugak ot e kami nunhawhawang ad Cubao, Makati, Pasay ya Manila Bay. They accompanied me and we went to Cubao, Makati, Pasay and Manila Bay. Dakol di tatagun umed Manila Bay ten himbatangan te da tibon nan kalimuhan nan algo. Many people go to Manila Bay in the afternoon because they go to see the setting of the sun. (sem. domains: 1.3.1 - Bodies of water.) Language of Borrowing: English.

bela₂ trans. to remove the top card in a deck and expose the next card in the monte game. Belaon yu ta tibon taku hin dahdiy nangapput. Remove the cards one by one and let us know who won. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

bighit comm. tiny braids pointed at the end. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Maphod di tibon nan binighit an buukna. It was nice to see the tiny braids of her hair. ‑in‑. (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.)

bokon 1neg. (prim) is not; are not; the negation form for the predicate constituent of an equational clause. Bokon he-a nan emi kalkalyon. It is not you whom we are talking about. Bokon ya abuwan datuwey matibod Manila. These are not the only things seen in Manila. Kananay “Man bokon mu hi Lammooy man impangang-ang ku.” He said, “It could not be, but I saw him as Lammooy?” Sim: ugge. (sem. domains: 9.4.6.1 - No, not.) 2(sec) a negative feeling or reaction. 2.1trans. (sec) to be annoyed; to feel resentment; to react negatively to something that is said or done. Adim boknon tun kalyok ke he-a. Do not be annoyed about what I tell you. ‑on. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.3 - Angry.) 2.2proc. (sec) to feel slighted; to feel hurt. <Inflected form: bumkon> ‑um‑. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.1.6 - Upset.) 2.3sta. (sec) refers to someone who is exceptionally sensitive to being slighted; inclined to pout or sulk. ma‑. bumkon comp. hin bokon der. mabkon

bolbol comm. a cone-bearing evergreen tree with needle-shaped leaves. [There are a few trees in the area; probably brought from Baguio and planted. Mostly found in the western part of Kiangan towards the Benguet boundary.] Dakol di matiboh bolbol ad Baguio. A lot of pine trees can be seen in Baguio. pt: gaplo; Sim: halong. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

buh’ug sta. to be satisfied, of hunger; full of food; satiated. Nabhug nan golang kinali adi mo kumga. The baby is full and he’ll not cry anymore. Deket adim pinhod an madittolbo nah hilong ya tibon ta mabhug tuwali. If you don’t want to be disturbed at night, see to it that he is full. Ugge da nangan te nakabhug da kanu. They did not eat because they said they were too full. ma‑/na‑. 6A Physiological process - State. Sim: punek. (sem. domains: 5.2.2.6 - Satiated, full.) id. nabhug di bolsa na

buk’a 1trans. to set/let loose; to let go; release; to free; to untie. Ibukam nan ahu ta waday innunan mun-adug tuh bale. Release the dog so it can guard the house. Bukaan yu nadan manuk ta mun-ay-ayyam da. Set the chickens free so they can roam around. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3B Move and release object. Sim: bulus. (sem. domains: 7.2.6.4 - Set free.) 2intrans. an animal frees itself form a pen or from its tethering rope. Numbuka nan nuwang ot ume nah payo. The carabao set itself loose and went to the ricefield. Tibon yu te bumuka nan ahu. Be careful because the dog might free itself.

bultung 1comm. wrestling. Bultung di aton di ammod dih donen manginila hin dahdiy munlay-a. Wrestling was the method by which our forefathers determined who was lying. Syn: alibadbad. (sem. domains: 4.8.2 - Fight.) 2intrans. to wrestle. [Wrestling was traditionally used to settle property boundary disputes, kiggad; the boundary was set wherever one was pushed and downed the farthest. Wrestling was also used in accusations of theft, ako, with two suspects, the loser was considered to be the thief.] Etaku ang-angon nadan mumbultung. Let’s go and see those who will wrestle. Ibultung da ta tibon da hin daanay koltog tun luta. They are going to wrestle to see the boundary of this land. muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑. Sim: pali.

buna trans. to get lost; to lose one’s way. Gaput uggek ininghaan ad Manila ya eyak bunbunnaon hanadah iibbak. Because I am not familiar with Manila, my companions tried to make me lose my way. Adina tuwali halipat-an nadan iibba na kinali nabuna. He did not watch his companions that’s why he lost his way. Tibom ta adi ka mabuna. See to it that you won’t get lost. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: talak. (sem. domains: 3.2.3.1 - Known, unknown.)

buta sta. speck in eye; foreign material in the eye. Tibom ta adi mabuta nan golang. See to it that he child doesn’t get a speck in his eye. Nadandani on waday nibutah matak. Every now and then a particle accidentally enters my eye. Maingit mo anhan di matak te mabutabuta. My eyes are already red because often times particles acccidentally enter my eyes. Inhabuwag na nan pantal ot hididyey numbutah matan Felisa. He threw the sand that went inside the eyes of Felisa. ma‑. mi‑, muN‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: 2.1.1.1 - Eye.)

buwe trans. to break; to crack; substance is glass or clay. Tibom ta adim buweyon nan angang. Be careful not to break the jar. Nabuwe nan buhi da. Their wine-jar was broken. Adi dakol di atom te kal-ina ya mabuwe tun buhi. Don’t do anything because this wine-jar might be broken. Bumuwe ka nah butilya ta punggadgad tuh kaiw. Break some of bottles to be used for scraping this wood. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. Sim: puhik. (sem. domains: 7.8.1 - Break.)

dalan₁ 1comm. a place for walking; path; trail; way. Maid di dalan hitu. There is no path here. Indani ya- ek bo igibok ya pindonak nin ot ieyak nah nuntap-on dalan. Later on, when I became aware, maybe he held me then took me to the upper road. Sim: kalata, kah-on. (sem. domains: 6.5.4.1 - Road.) 2to walk. 2.1intrans. to move about on foot; to walk. <Affixation: The circumfix set muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an expresses both a durative aspect and the site-concept of a widely spread area for the walking, i.e. walking around. > Mundallan mo nan golang. The child walks now. Ditakun tatagu ya kulugon takun wadaday mundallanan weno muntayyapan an adi matibo. It is a common belief that there are unseen beings who are either walking around or flying in the air. muN‑/nuN‑, muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 7.2.1.1 - Walk.) 2.2intrans. to walk, with a starting point in view. Dumallan mo nan unga. The child can already walk. um/imm. 3to walk by, bypass or through a place. 3.1trans. to walk, passing by a place or through a medium. Indaladalan muh di yaden adim pinhod an makihummangan ke hiya. You are always passing there yet you do not like to talk with her. Idalan taku nah wa-el. We will pass through the creek. Daanay pangidalanam? Where will you pass (lit. path/walk)? i‑/iN‑. nangi‑/pangi‑ + ‑an. 3.2trans. to walk on a path, road with prominence given to the thing walked on. Maid di dalanon yuh tu. There is no place to walk here. on/in. id. kay bakkukul an dumalan id. kay gawgaway pundalan id. kay kabayun dumalan infl. ipadalan

dammu (sp. var. damu) 1to meet. 1.1trans. to encounter someone in particular; to meet. Em dammuwon hi inam. Go and meet your mother. Dinammuwak nah muyung. He met me in the forest. Hidiy nanammuwanan nadah bumdang kediyen hilong. There is where he had encountered the bumdang-spirit the night before. ‑on/‑in‑ , nan‑ ‑an. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 7.2.3 - Move toward something.) 1.2trans. to meet someone with something; what is being taken is in view. Idammu yu nan payung te mun-udan. Meet him with the umbrella because it’s raining. Mangali ta ahan ya pun-idammum di mahakit an kali. I am just arriving and you are meeting/greeting me with harsh words. i‑/iN‑, puN‑ i‑. 1.3rec. to meet each other. Nundammu da nah kalata. They met on the street. Dahdiy mundammu ke he-a? Who will meet you? muN‑/nuN‑. 1.4trans. meeting place. Daanay pundammuwan yu? Where will you meet? puN‑ ‑an. 2trans. may refer to meeting trouble or difficulty; may also refer to two inanimate objects being brought together to be adjacent. Tibom ta adim dammuwon ad-adin maat. Be careful (lit. see to it) that you don’t meet with something bad. ‑on/‑in‑.

daplug (sp. var. duplug) knock over. 1.1trans. to knock over by bumping or overrunning as a flood. Kumaan kah na te idaplug dakan hiya. Get out of there because he will knock you over. Nidaplug nan ung-ungngan um-umbun te munhihilong an adi matibo. The child sitting there was knocked over because it was night and she couldn’t be seen. Nan olwang ya indaplug nah baleda. That flood, it overran their house. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) 1.2trans. to knock over, involves the manner or reason for the action. Ikiwangan yu ot din mangali te kay nuwang an umidaplug. Give way to the one coming because he will knock you over like a carabao. Pun-idaplug muy ubunan te adim tibon di dalanom. You knock the seat over because you don’t look where you are going. Mamtikak ya wada da nan nitanom nah pangidalanak ot pun-idaplug ku. I was running and there were plants in my way so I knocked them over. umi‑, puN‑ i‑. 1.3trans. to bump someone or something. Immali ot daplugonak ot bumtik. He came and bumped me and ran away. ‑on/‑in‑.

datong₁ 1intrans. to reach a destination; to arrive. Dimmatong dad Lagawe ad nakugab. They arrived at Lagawe yesterday. Madatong di tiempon ahi daka tibon. The time will arrive when I’ll see you. Dakol day tatagun e munhood hi iiba dan dumatong. Many people go to meet their relatives who are arriving. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑. 2A Movement, from one place to another.. (sem. domains: 7.2.3.3.1 - Arrive.) 2trans. to arrive, bringing something with oneself. <The prefix cross-references the object that is brought.> Idatong yu nan itunguh bale. Bring the firewood up to our house. Indatong da nan babuy dih indai. They arrived with the pig a while ago. i‑/iN‑. 3F Move something along with onself. (sem. domains: 7.3.3 - Take somewhere.) 3trans. the site of arrival is an object that is cross-referenced, a person, place or time. <Morphophonology: datngan; dinatngan; the ‘o’ in the second syllable of the root is lost when a suffix is added.> Datngan hiyah di. You will arrive there where he’ll be. Dinatngan Jose hitud Kiangan ad nakugab. Jose arrived here in Kiangan yesterday. Indani ya nadatngan hidiyen nagtud an algo. Then, the appointed day arrived. ‑an/‑in‑‑an. infl. madatngan

datuwey (der. of datuwe) demonstrative predicate. these are; a demonstrative predicate that refers to something that has been stated previously. Bokon abuwan datuwey matibod Manila. These are not the only things that can be seen in Manila. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

dayyu 1intrans. to move in a downward direction; walking or riding down an incline; descend; go down, walk down a mountain or hillside. Dumayyu ka keh tu ta waday ibagak. Come down here (lit. descend) and I will ask you something. Dumayyu kad Pindongan ta em tibon hi Dulyaggan. Come down to Pindongan so that you will go to see Dulyaggan. Mundayyu kat ume kah bale da ta em ayagan hi Kabbigat ta pumbaddang kun mangilagim tuh babuy. Go down (lit. descend), to their house and call for Kabbigat so that I will have someone to help me singe the pig. Indai ot dongdonglona, mundayyu dah wa-el nan ho kali ya- ne kinimit na. Later on, as he was hearing, they were going down to the creek and then he closed his eyes. muN‑/nuN, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 1B Movement with a directional component. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.5 - Move down.) 2sta. to be sloping, a path or road, descending toward a destination. Madayyu nan dalan an umeh baleda. The path going to their house is sloping. Ya mumpadayyuy ohat mumpaed Kiangan. And one pathway goes down towards Kiangan. ma‑. 3to descend with the path or site in view. 3.1trans. the direct object refers to a specific path or something along the path. Dayyuwon yu nan madopla ta ahi kayu dumatong. You’ll go down/descend the cliff before arriving. ‑on/‑in; dayyuwon. 3.2trans. the direct object refers to a specific site for starting the descent Hidiy dayyuwan yu. There (is the place) where you will go down. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3.3trans. the direct object refers to an object along the path of descent. Idayyu yu nah kad-an di mangga. You’ll go down/descend where the mango tree is. i‑/iN‑.

deyahdi (comp. of deya, hidi) exispred. something exists and is located away from both speaker and hearer; involves a degree of emphasis; there it is. Tibom. deyahdi. Look, there it is. Sim: dehdi.

diyat open eyes. 1.1trans. to open eyes. Diniyat Bugan nan matanah namodwongana. Bugan opened her eyes wide in surprise. Diyaton yuy mata yu ta tibon yu. Open your eyes wide so you will see it. Adi madiyat di matana. Her eyes cannot be opened. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.) 1.2intrans. to open the eyes wide, appearing to stare at something. Pundiyat nay matana. She was opening her eyes wide./She was staring. puN‑. 1.3nom. to have eyes opened. Mahakit di ek pundiyatan hi matak te nakamataak. It is painful when I open my eyes because I’m having sore eyes. puN‑ ‑an.

dong-o trans. to look out an aperture. Idong-om dih tawang ta tibom hin dahdiy mun-ayag. Look out the window and see who is calling. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.)

dopdop trans. to pack down; to tamp down, by walking or tramping with feet. Dopdopon yu nan banong. Tamp down the ricefield dike. Tibon yut adiyu idopdop nan nitanom. Be careful not to trample the plants. Nadopdop tun galden ku te idannalan yuh tu. My garden is packed down because you are always walking on it. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, ma‑/na‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.) id. dopdoponay kalata

dung-o₁ intrans. to visit (lit. to be seen at the door). Wada key dimmung-oh nunhituwan, tibon ta ipaptok dida. If anyone comes to visit, see to it that you take care of them. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. (sem. domains: 4.2.1.4 - Visit.)

dunghul trans. to hit with force; to ram something. Tibom ta adi daka dunghulon nah babuy. See to it that the pig won’t ram you (usually with snout). Idunghul mu nan tukud. Use the wooden post in ramming. Dumunghul nan babuy da Juan. The pig of Juan rams people. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, ‑um‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.)

ebew 1intrans. distorted lips when about to cry or when crying. Pun-ebew nan golang dih hinuplit da. The child’s lips were distorted when they spanked him. puN‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.6.1 - Gesture.) 2trans. to distort a particular side of the face. Adim ebewon te ad-adin tibon. Do not distort your face because it is not good to look at. ‑on/‑in‑.

gartib (sp. var. galatib) 1comm. a pair of scissors. Alam nan gartib ta pu-litan daka. Get the scissors and we will cut your hair. (sem. domains: 6.7.1 - Cutting tool.) 2trans. to cut with scissors. Gartibom ya- tun papel. Please cut this paper. Gartibam tun buuk ku nah indoggan. Cut some of my hair at the back. Punggartib na papel. He is cutting the paper. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, puN‑. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: kartib.

gayotgot 1intrans. to experience extreme anger, includes a desire to do something bad to the person with whom one is angry. [The word may imply the grinding or gritting of the teeth in anger.] Adika pipatibon hiya te gumayotgot. Don’t let yourself be seen by her because she will be extremely angry. Munggagayotgot. He is gritting his teeth in anger. ‑um‑/‑imm‑; muN‑/nuN‑. 2C Emotion and sensation. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.3 - Angry.) 2trans. to be angry with someone; the one to whom the anger is directed is cross-referenced by the affix. Gayotgotanah Anton. She is extremely angry with Anton. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3comm. fury. Namahig di gayotgot na. Her fury was extreme.

geeng 1trans. to char or to burn something. Geengom tun papel. Burn this paper. Dahdiy munggeeng tuh basura? Who will burn the trash? Tibom ta adi mageeng nan inhibak mun aba. See to it that the yams you boiled will not be burned. Uggan mu kiwalon nan niha-ang ta adi mageeng. Often stir the thing being cooked so that it will not be burned. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ma‑/na‑. 4A Change the structure of object. Sim: puul, gohob. (sem. domains: 5.5.4 - Burn.) 2proc. to cause a sensation of burning. Gumeeng di apul hi dila. Lime burns the tongue. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

gikna trans. to sense something or to become aware; to feel physical sensations. Indani ya giknaom di mahakit. After a while, you’ll feel the pain. Giknaonay inagang na te mangidlu! She felt her hunger because she is lazy. Tibom ta adika gumiknah malaria. See to it that you don’t get sick (feel sick) with malaria. Inggiknak ya waday tagun hinunggop. I suddenly woke up and sensed that someone had entered the house. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, i‑/iN‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: hiktam. (sem. domains: 2.3 - Sense, perceive.)

gohob trans. to burn; to char. Gohbon yun am-in nadan holok. Burn all of the grasses thoroughly. Gumhob nan apuy hin mih-up ta. The fire can burn you if you go near it. Tibom ta maghob am-in nan galut. See to it that all the rubbish will be burned. Naghob nan kide na. His eyebrows were burned. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. 4A Change the structure of object. Sim: puul, geeng. (sem. domains: 5.5.4 - Burn.)

golom 1comm. pubic hair Matibo di golom na. His pubic hair can be seen. (sem. domains: 2.1.5 - Hair.) 2sta. to have pubic hair. Nagloman mo te kat-agu. He has pubic hair because he is a teenager. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

gulatna conj. signals a condition or situation that results in or would result in an event or situation that would be different had the preceding condition or situation not existed. if only; had it not been for. Gulatna ta ugge immali ya wadan umeyak ta ek tibon. If he had not come, I would have gone to see him. Gulatna ot ta waday pihhu ya wadan ugge nate. If there had been money then he would not have died. Gulatna nin ta maid di mundogo nadah mangulug ke Apu Dios ya maid da nin di mumbaki Maybe if none of the Christians would become ill, there would be no more shamans. Athidi bon gulatnat mama-id am-in di mumbaki ta hiya ya abuy matdaan Like that also, if there are no shamans except for him (sem. domains: 9.6.2.8 - Condition.) der. munggulat

ha-ud 1comm. the warp thread, the lengthwise thread in a loom placed over the uluwan 'loom bar' and is crossed by the woof thread. [This is done by the weaver’s aide.] (sem. domains: 6.6.1 - Working with cloth.) 2trans. to place thread lengthwise on the loom. Maka Mary ta ihaud ta tun ablok. Come, Mary, so we will prepare the warp of what I’m going to weave. Aga ta tibok di inhaud yu? Let me see the warp you did? Haudan tan am-in tun ablan. Let us put thread on the entire loom so that it will be wide. (finished product) Munhaud kami ke Mary. We (I and Mary) will place the thread. (understood on the loom) i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 7.3.2.6 - Put in.)

hagit comm. the lines in the palm of the hand. Makattibo di hagit di palad na. The lines of his palm are clear. (sem. domains: 2.1.3.1 - Arm.)

hapit 1comm. a speech. Donglon taku di hapit na. Let us hear his speech. Waday kanta, hapit ya tayo an impatibon nadan nalpuh natkonatkon an boble. There were songs, speeches and dances rendered by different groups from different barrios. Sim: kali. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2intrans. to lure or tempt with words; to sweet-talk someone. Humapit an kandidato. The candidate will give a speech. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Speech Verbs - Purpose is to evoke a response. der. mahapit infl. ihapit infl. ihapitan

hawan trans. to block the view. Adim hawanan nan dilag. Do not block the light. Ihawan mu nan saku nah tawang. Use the sack in blocking the window. Humawan nan kaiw ta adi matibo nan bale mi. The tree blocks the view so that our house cannot be seen. Adika mihawan na. Do not block our view. ‑an/‑in‑‑an, i‑/iN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, mi‑/ni‑. Sim: duklig, hani; Sim: hani. (sem. domains: 7.3.7 - Cover.) Language of Borrowing: Central Ifugao.

hawil 1trans. to pry something loose with the aid of a lever. Ihawil mu nan patanong. You use that cane as a lever. Hawilom nan batu. Pry the stone loose. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 7.5.2.4 - Remove, take apart.) 2sta. to be caught between two things; pinched between to big objects. Tibom ta adi mihawil di hukim. Take care that your feet will not be caught in between. mi‑/ni‑.

hiku₁ 1comm. the elbow. Andukkey taklen di bulwatina ta adi matiboy hiku na. The sleeves of her dress are long so that her elbows cannot be seen. (sem. domains: 2.1.3.1 - Arm.) 2trans. to hit something or someone with elbow. Adika mih-up te hikuwon dakan hiya. Do not go near him because he will elbow you. Hiniku nah tulang na kinali mundadalay olong na. He elbowed his brother, that is why his nose is bleeding. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: hiknul. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.)

hil-am trans. to burn the surface of something; to sear lightly; to singe. [One method of cooking young rice.] Tibom ot ta adim hil-aman di atop. Be careful that you don’t burn the roof. Nahil-aman nan kide na handi hinap-udana nan apuy. His eyebrows were singed when he blew on the fire. Ihil-am mu nan daun ta yumam-o. You sear banana leaves so that they will be soft. Ihil-am taku tun ballu. We will sear the young rice. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 5.5.4 - Burn.)

hilip 1trans. to sight an object or target along a straight line; to look through a camera lens or telescope; to sight along a plane; to aim. Hilipom ni-an ne ahim binduk. Sight at it first before firing. Hilipom ke ta tibom hi ustu. Sight it so you’ll see very well. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.) 2intrans. to sight in order to aim. Munhilip kinali op-opya ka. He is sighting a target that is why you must keep quiet. muN‑/nuN‑.

himbatangan comm. afternoon; between 3:00 - 5:00 p.m. is the time referred to. Namahig di atung hanah himbatangan. It is very hot in the afternoon. Himbatangan ke on mungngala day dulduli. During afternoons cicadas become noisy. Dakol di tatagun umed Manila Bay ten himbatangan te da tibon nan kalimuhan nan algo. Many people go to Manila Bay in the afternoon because they go to see the setting of the sun. (sem. domains: 8.4.1.2.3 - Time of the day.)

himong₁ sta. to be confused and thus be mistaken. Tibom ta adika mahimong. See to it that you will not get confused. Nahimongak an numbilang. I was confused in counting. ma‑/na‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: 3.2.4.1 - Misunderstand.)

hingkatang (infl. of katang) adv. 1refers to a short period of time; sometimes thought of as unexpected; a moment; short time. Hingkatang di nanib-ak ot ume. I saw it for a moment then it was gone. Hingkatang an immaliy udan. The rain came for a short time. Nuntikod nan radyo hi hingkatang. The radio stopped for a moment. Hingkatang ya ammunay nala-u ya timmaddog nan inhinyero ot eda mo mihanin duwat The engineer was able to stand seconds after the worker finished praying so they both went to seek cover. Time. Sim: bigla, maid maptok, na-ala, maag. (sem. domains: 8.4.2.1 - A short time.) 2indicating there is no time lapse, something happens instantly and unexpectedly; suddenly. Tibom te hingkatang ya mag-a ka. Look out, because you might fall suddenly. (sem. domains: 8.4.8.1 - Quick.) infl. hingkakatang

hinnatkon 1adj. another kind or type of thing; different looking. Hinnatkon nan inbulwatina ad uwani. She has a different dress now. Toan. Uggemi inila te hinnatkon di kali na. Kay na pay punggalgal di kalkalyona. We don’t know what she said because her speech was different. It was as though she chewed on the words she was saying. Qualifier. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.2.3 - Different.) 2intrans. to become different; to be different. Huminnatkon di tibom hin mumpapu-lit ka. You will look different if you have a haircut. Munhinnatkon di ginattang da. They bought different things. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑. 3trans. to do something to make a thing different. Hinnatkonon yu nan kapyaon yun ha-on. Make mine different. 2G Processes.

hiy’o 1comm. bright light. Matiboy hiyon di dilag yu. The glow of your light can be seen. (sem. domains: 8.3.3 - Light.) 2intrans. to radiate light; to shine or glow. Humihiyoy dilag yu. Your lamplight shines. ‑um‑/‑imm‑ CV‑.

hodom 1sta. darkness of evening. Eka ot tedeyan mahdom. Go now because it will soon be dark. Nahdom ke ya ahi naukat ta tumanayyapan. It comes out and flies around quietly at night. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: hilong, tapol, labi. (sem. domains: 8.4.1.2.1 - Night, 8.3.3.2 - Dark.) 2adv. this evening; tonight. Hi mahdom di aliyana. He will come tonight. ma‑. Time. 3adv. last night. Maid dilag dih nahdom. There was no light last night. na‑. 4pass. will arrive late or in the evening; night catches up with someone along the way. Tibom ta adika mahdoman. Be sure that night will not overtake you on the way. ma‑ ‑an. infl. hoddomna infl. mahmahdom

hoktang sta. for something to be detached; to be broken apart. {This may be said at the end of a story, particularly malamala stories.} Tibom ta adi mahoktang nan balituk mu. See that your gold necklace will not be broken apart. Mahoktang di alanga-ang mu te hay tatawam. You will have a sore throat because of your laughter (lit. your throat will be detached). ma‑/na‑. 6D Descriptives. Sim: hipdut, kohat, pogtang, puttut. (sem. domains: 7.8.1 - Break.) id. hoktang kolang id. hoktang putut id. mahoktang di alanga-ang

huh’ut trans. to tighten the knot of ropes and strings. Huhutom di wanom. Tighten your g-string. Tibom ta adi mahuthut di gakod nan nuwang te mabitkol man. See that the tie of the carabao is not tightened as it might be strangled. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.5.4 - Tie.)

hulliwot₂ comm. a big green grasshopper with a pointed head. Katatakut di tibon di hulliwot. The appearance of a hulliwot-grasshopper is scary. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.)

hungdu trans. to go to visit; to visit a place. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Hungduwon Aliguyon ad Hananga ta ena tibon hi Bugan. Aliguyon goes to the village of Hanaga to see Bugan. ‑on. Sim: pahyal, ay-ayyam. infl. hungduwon

hunul trans. to burn something, using kindling outside of the fireplace. Hunulam nan basura. Burn the trash. Tibom ot ta adim hunulan di atop. Take care not to burn the roof. ‑an, ‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented sites. (sem. domains: 5.5.4 - Burn.)

hupwik (sp. var. lupwik) 1comm. the other part of a divided thing, e.g. like the breast of a chicken. Inihdak nan hupwik na. I ate the other part of the wing. (sem. domains: 8.1.6.1 - Part.) 2trans. to divide into parts. Hupwikom tun manuk ta tibon takuy altena. Divide this chicken so that we will see the liver. Hinupwik na nan manuk. He divided the chicken. ‑on/‑in‑.

ih-up (infl. of hu-up) trans. to bring something near to someone or to bring near to another thing. Ih-up mu nan dilag te adiyak pakatibo. Bring the light nearer because I can’t see. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object a site. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.)

ila-u (infl. of la-u) trans. to pass by with something or someone. Ila-u yu nan babuy hitu ta tibok. You pass by here with the pig so I can take a look at it. Ila-u dah tu nan nate. They will pass by here with the dead person. i‑/iN‑. 3F Move something along with oneself. (sem. domains: 7.2.3.5 - Move past, over, through.)

imi 1comm. smile. Makalumiiy imi na te timbal da. His smile is very sweet because he was accepted. Iday matibon maid hangliw nan imim. Ah, I can see that smile is pretentious. Mapait di imi na te naapput da. She has hurt feelings (lit. her smile is bitter) because they lost. Syn: ngih-il. (sem. domains: 3.5.6.1 - Gesture.) 2intrans. to smile. Umimi ka ta adida kanan di bimmoh-ol ka. Smile so that they will not think that you are mad. Mun-iimi da handi nundadammu kami. They were smiling when we met. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 2C Emotion and sensation. id. malumiin imi id. mapait an imi

inadipan comm. fetus; lit. what is being born. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Matibo moy inadipana. Her being pregnant can be seen. (sem. domains: 2.6.3.2 - Fetus.)

inolas (der. of olas) advpred. to do something each hour; hourly. Inolas nan nanginum tun agah yaden nanongnan nundogo. He swallowed this medicine hourly and yet he is still sick. Inolas hi kabigabigat on ena tibon nan appad na. Hourly each day, he goes to see his bird-trap. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.6.6.3 - Often, 8.4.1 - Period of time.)

ka- -an₁ nominalizer. this circumfix derives a noun from a verb. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman This so-called prestige feast ‘hagabi’ entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers Maid di ena id-um hi kanomnoman ya mumbalin tan kay hiyyahiyya. Nothing is added to your wisdom and we may become proud and boastful. Dakol di tatagun umed Manila Bay ten himbatangan te da tibon nan kalimuhan nan algo. Many people go to Manila Bay in the afternoon because they go to see the setting of the sun. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.3 - Derivational affixes.)

kadap intrans. to move, by crawling refers to insects, lizards, vine-type plant and babies. Nal-ot nan banniyan kumadap. The lizard is strong in crawling. Itaggem ke nan bulwatik ta tibom nan gutul an mungkaddapan nah odog ku. Please pull up my shirt and see the ant crawling on my back. Pungkadap din sayoten am-in din nih-up an nitanom. The sayote-plant is crawling over all the nearby plants. Humgop nan golang nah kuwarto ta kadaponan am-in di kama. The baby enters the rooms and crawls in all the beds. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑ ‑an, ‑on/‑in‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. Sim: bullu, bakka. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) der. mungkaddapan

kakulugana (der. of kulug) nom. the correct interpretation is; truthfully. Hay kakulugana ya naatuwak. Truthfully, I’m tired./The truth is, I’m tired. Hay kakulugana ya am-in tun matibom ya bagik. The truth is that everything you see is mine. Hay kakulugana ya maid di pumpiliyan da. Truthfully, they have no choice. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.3 - True.)

kaltib 1comm. scissors. Matadom nan kaltib na. His scissors are sharp. (sem. domains: 6.7.1 - Cutting tool.) 2trans. to cut something with a scissors. Kaltibom nan papel. Cut the paper. Kaltibom di kukuk. Cut my fingernails. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: kartib.

kamukamu trans. to do something by trial and error. Adiyu yu kamukamuwon nan impangunuk. Do not do the task I gave you by trial and error. Matibon nakamukamu nan nginunu da. It could be seen that the work they did was by trial and error. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 9.1.2 - Do.)

kanta 1comm. refers to a song or music in general. Mundonggol ka hi kanta nah ladyu. Listen to songs/music from the radio. Waday kanta, hapit ya tayo an impatibon nadan nalpuh natkonatkon an boble. There were songs, speeches and dances rendered by different groups from different barrios. (sem. domains: 4.2.3.3 - Sing.) 2intrans. to sing. Takon nadan enungkanta ya nanayo ya uggeda nangan. Even those who sang and danced did not eat. Kanan Juliey, “Dakol di in-innat mi. Nungkanta kami ya pimmaytuk kami. Julie said, “We did many things. We sang and we jumped, muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to sing a particular song. Ikantam nan intuddun tulang mu. Sing the song taught by your brother. i‑/iN‑.

kattog adjunct. 1expression of a feeling of uncertainty; also, there can be a sense of futility based on the inability to fulfill expectations or the futility of an action; uncertainty. Hituwe kattog di midat mi. This is only what we can give. Pangalim nin kattog di babale nadan udum bon matibo mo bokon ta datuwe nan kalyon an bapor. You may think that what you see are houses but these are what they call ships. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 9.4.4.6 - Unsure.) 2expresses a feeling of disappointment; unfortunately. Ot ituntun-ud mon kattog Malya hanan lata hanadah iibanan linalaki. Malya had to hold the can and be contented with just following her brothers.

kibul 1sta. to have sediment in water. Adim kutiyon nan danum ta adi makibul. Don’t stir the water so that the sediment will not be disturbed. Nakibul tun liting, adi matibo ad dalom. This water has so much sediment that I can’t see the bottom. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: kilut. (sem. domains: 1.3.6 - Water quality.) 2intrans. to stir up water by splashing and causing sediment to be stirred up. Kimmibul on dolog nah gawwan nan payo. A mudfish splashed in the middle of the paddy. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

kili 1sta. to have naturally curly or kinky hair. Nakilkili di buuk din Pugut. The hair of the Aeta is kinky. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 2.1.5 - Hair.) 2trans. to curl hair by a heating a wire, tobong, and winding it on hair. Kilkilion da nan buuk mu ta wadan pumpumhod di tibom. They will curl your hair by using a heated wire and maybe you will look better. ‑on/‑in‑.

kilib 1trans. to touch many things. Dakol di kilibon hin imme kah balen da apum. You touch many things whenever you go to the house of your grandparents. Bimmoh-olak ke dakayuh nungkiliban yun nah ek intalu. I got mad at you when you were touching what I had hidden. Umali Maria dih tendaan mo ena kinikinilib hanadan wada nah estante. Maria comes to your store and touches what are on the shelves. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.3.4.1 - Touch.) 2intrans. to grope for one’s way. Mungkilkilib an immanamut te adi pakatibo nah dalan. He was groping while coming home because he could not see the path. muN‑/nuN‑ CV(C).

kina- 1mod. this prefix expresses the concept of a quality or characteristic being inherent or evident. Hi Apu Dios ya impatibo na kinaDios na. As for God, he has shown his Godness. Bumobboh-ol damdama ke dadiyen tulun gayyum Job te uggeda kinabaelan an hinumang hi Job hi ustu ta kay mo hi Apu Dios di nihalla an bokon hi Job. (Job 32:3) He was also very angry with Job’s three friends because they did not have the ability to adequately answer Job so that it was like God was mistaken, not Job. Deket mundama kayun tulang mu wenu hay udum an tatagu ya adi nalgom di kalyon hi kinagaga-iho da. When you quarrel with your brother/sister or other people, don’t tell about their evil. (sem. domains: 9.2.9 - Affixes.) 2dervN. the prefix derives a noun. Impakiala da nadan limmu da ya am-in di kinadangyan da. They got their property and all of their riches. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.3 - Derivational affixes.)

kodyat intrans. to raise eyebrows. [Raising the eyebrows is sometimes used as a communicative gesture.] Makainnilan waday secret ta te ipatpatibom an kumanodyat kan ha-oy. It is obvious that we have a secret when you reveal it by raising your eyebrows at me. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2G Processes. (sem. domains: 3.5.6.1 - Gesture.)

kokol trans. to call for chickens. Kokolom nadan manok te mungkahilong. Call the chickens because it’s already twilight. Kinokol na nadan manuk. He called for the chickens. Mungkokol kat ek tibon nadan gawgawa. You call for the chickens so that I can go to see (take care of) the ducks. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring object toward agent. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.4.1 - Call.)

komo adjunct. just because; since; expression of agreement; yes or okay. A: Tipet indat nan he-an ampuyo ya binangngad na? B: Komo anhan ugge nibangngad? A: Why did she give you the skirt and then, insist that it be returned to her? (rhetorical question) B: Yes, it’s true that it shouldn’t have been returned. A: Etaku tibon nan nate te hinag-on. B: Komo ume taku peman. A: Let’s go to see the dead man because he’s our neighbor. B: Yes, let’s definitely go. Komo maid di ammod ku ya eyak iathinan dakayu. Just because I have no parents, you do that to me. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.4 - Agree with someone.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: como.

kon₁ int. question marker, marks a yes-no question, usually used for confirming; may also be used as a rhetorical question marker. Kon pinhod mun e makih-od? Do you want to join in waiting? “Kon matiboy bibiyo?” kanan bon ina. “Can you see a fairy?” mother said. Kon tuwali waday kimmadangyan hi tugal? Was there ever one who became a rich man through gambling? “Kay na ot kanan di Lata. Ina, kon wada damdamay nangang-angam ketuwen bibiyo?” kanak. “It was like she said Lata. Mother, have you also seen this fairy?” I asked. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.5 - Ask.)

kungkung 1comm. ceremonial headdress, feathers from the neck of roosters are tied together in a row and tied in men’s hair. Inha-ad na nan kungkung hi uluna ot e manayo. He put on his ceremonial headdress, then went to dance. (sem. domains: 5.4 - Adornment.) 2intrans. to wear or use a kungkung ceremonial headdress. Mungkungkung kan manayo ta maphod di tibona. Wear a kungkung-headdress when you dance so that it will look good. muN‑/nuN‑.

lakay 1comm. old man. Daan nan lakay? Where is the old man? (sem. domains: 2.6.5.1 - Man.) 2comm. may be used to refer to a husband. Daan di nangayan lakay mu? Where did your husband go? Opp: bak’et. (sem. domains: 4.1.9.2.1 - Husband, wife.) 3comm. nickname for a baby boy. (sem. domains: 2.6.4.2 - Child.) 4proc. to become an old man. Limmakay di tibo na te makanginnum. His looks became like that of an old man because he is a heavy drinker. Nalakay moh ama. Father is already an old man. ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: 2.6.4.5 - Old person.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

lakbi intrans. to overflow. Tibom ta adi lumakbiy danum nan dotag. See that the broth of the meat will not overflow. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: hibu. (sem. domains: 7.2.2 - Move in a direction.) id. lumakbi peman di ule na.

laliw intrans. the wish to go with someone you like, e.g. children who want to go with their parents wherever they go. Makilaliw hi Tony ken inana. Tony wants to go with his mother. Nalaliw tuwali. He has that characteristic of wanting to go with people. Adi mumpatibo hin umeka te milaliw bo. Do not show yourself to her when you leave because she will insist on tagging along. maki‑, mi‑, na‑. (sem. domains: 3.3 - Want.)

law-an 1sta. to speak without thought; slip of the tongue; unintentional or careless speech. Tibom ta adi milaw-an di kalim. See that you don’t say words unintentionally. Waday nilaw-an an kinalik hi bingkona. I said something I should not have said that displeased him. mi‑/ni‑. Sim: luhu. (sem. domains: 3.5.5 - Foolish talk.) 2nom. to be careless in behavior; requires a co-occurring negative. Tibok ta maid di ek kilaw-anan hi atok. I will watch so that there will be no carelessness in what I do. ki‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 4.3.1.2.1 - Below standard.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

liglig detour. 1.1intrans. to take an alternate path for the purpose of a shortcut or in order to avoid being seen. Munliglig kayu nah muyung ta gagala kayun dumatong. Take a detour through the forest so that you will arrive earlier. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.1.1 - Walk, 7.2.4.6 - Way, route.) 1.2trans. focus is on the alternate path, rather than the action. Wada key pangayak on iliglig ku te tibonak ke nadah imbabalek on nakilaliw da. Whenever I go somewhere I have to pass the other way so that my children will not see me, otherwise they will insist that they will go with me. Munnomnom an iliglig na. He decided to take an alternate path i‑/iN‑.

limu 1go down. 1.1sta. to be submerged; to have sunk below the surface; to vanish out of sight from a horizontal plane. Nalimu nah adalom. He was submerged in the deep spot. ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.5 - Move down.) 1.2nom. refers to the sunset. Dakol di tatagun umed Manila Bay ten himbatangan te da tibon nan kalimuhan nan algo. Many people go to Manila Bay in the afternoon because they go to see the setting of the sun. Imme da nah nalimuhan di algo. They went after the sun had set. ka‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 8.4.1.2.3 - Time of the day.) 2proc. disappearing from view. Mungkalimuy bulan ot ahi kami umanamut. The moon was already disappearing when we went home. Mungkalimuy algo. The sun is disappearing. mungka‑. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.) n. ph. kalimuwan di algo ph. v. nalimuwan di algo

lista 1comm. list; a record of a number of items. (sem. domains: 6.8.7 - Accounting.) 2trans. to make a list; write down as a record. Hituwey listaan nadan immalin nungngunu. This is the list of those who came to work. Ipatibom nan listaam. Show your list. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: lista. der. ilista

lokha trans. to detach by prying or breaking loose, e.g. walls, something nailed to a wall; to remove forcefully with hands. Lokhaom nan dingding nan balen di manuk. Pry loose the walls of the house of the chicken. Linokha da nadan atop di bale. They pried loose the roofing sheets of the house. Tibom ta adi malokha nan papel. See that the paper will not be detached. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 7.5.2.4 - Remove, take apart.)

lomam 1comm. a being that appears in nightmares. Tumakutak hi lomam. I’m afraid of a nightmare ghost. Sim: bangungut. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) 2sta. to have a nightmare and experience chest heaviness. Muntigging kan mahuyop ta adika malmam. Sleep on your side so you won’t have a nightmare. 3trans. to be terrified with nightmares. Dakol di patibom ke ha-on hi katatakut ya lomamonak ke he-a. (Job 7:14) There are many things that you cause me to see that are fearful, and you terrify me with nightmares. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.4 - Afraid.) id. kay lomam

luhi comm. male sex organ, human or animal. Adim ipatpatibo nan luhim. Don’t display your penis. Sim: butli, utin, butu. (sem. domains: 2.1.8.3 - Male organs.)

lukya trans. to uncover the lower body, e.g. for a woman’s skirt to be lifted up. Lukyaam ta tibom hin intalu na nah ulpu na. Lift her skirt to see if she is hiding it on her thigh. Nal-ot nan dibdib kinali nalukyahan da. The wind was strong that’s why their skirts were blown up. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 5.3.7 - Wear clothing.)

ma-₂ pass. this prefix derives the passive form of Class 4 verbal roots; non-past tense. Matbal da mo peman! Now they are highly respected indeed. Adina anhan dongolon di kalin nan inayana an kananay ahida mahmok di imbabale da. He did not heed the protests of his wife who said that their children would be pitied. Pangalim nin kattog di babale nadan udum bon matibo mo bokon ta datuwe nan kalyon an bapor. You think what can be seen are houses but these are what they call ships. Sim: na-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

makaC2- -an mod. this circumfix encodes an intensified passive; non-past tense; cross-references the subject. <The second consonant of the root is geminated.> Kalyok hituwe te ad uwani ya makaawwatan takuy ine-en di pamhod te hidiyey impatibotibon Jesus hi pangi-ena. (1 Juan 2:8b) I say this because now we fully understand the way of love because that is what Jesus continuously revealed by his customary way. Sim: nakaC2- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

maki-₁ mod. this prefix encodes a participatory concept; it indicates that the agent subject is participating with others in an action or activity; non-past tense. Tibom bot adika makidkid-um hi fraternities te maid di hilbin dadiye. See to it also that you don’t join any fraternity groups because they are useless. Hinumang inada, “Te ume kayu moh iskul. Maki-e kan manong mu. Their mother answered, “Because you are going to school. You will go with your brother.” Matukatukal ka an e makitugatugal te mapat-al ya hilong di puntutugalan yu. You stay awake to join in gambling because your gambling goes on night and day. Sim: naki-; Sim: maki- -an, naki- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

makmak 1comm. sores on feet caused by dampness. [The sores are often caused by continuous immersion in the dirty waters of the ricefields.] Mahakit di makmak ku. The sores on my feet are painful. (sem. domains: 2.5.2.2 - Skin disease.) 2sta. to have sores on feet from immersion in dirty water. Tibom ta adika mamakmak. See to it that you don’t get sores on your feet. ma‑.

mama-id (der. of maid) 1sta. for something to disappear; pass out of sight; cease to exist. Mama-id di timol nan ahu hin uggan mu amhon. The fleas of the dog will vanish if you bathe it regularly. (sem. domains: 9.1.1.1 - Exist.) 2trans. to cause to disappear or cease to exist. Tibom te ma-idon da nan impad-on mun pihhu. Be careful because they will make the money you let him hold disappear. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object.

mangihwang (infl. of ihwang) trans. refers to the one who saves. Hiya ya abuy mangihwang ke ditaku. (Acts 4:12b) He is the only one who saves us. Mu hi Apu Dios an mangihwang ke ditakun mangulug ya impatibo nay ulena ya pamhod nan ditaku ot ihwang ditaku, mu bokon gapuh nangatan takuh maphod, mu gapuh homok na. (Titus 3:4) But God who saves us believers, he shows his kindness and his love for us and so he saves us, but not because of the good we have done, but because of his mercy. mangi‑. (sem. domains: 4.9.3 - Theology.)

matadom di mata na (id. of tadom) to see very well (lit. his eyes are sharp). Matadom di matana te tibonay uwang nan bilat. Her eyes are sharp because she can see the eye of the needle.

mo anhan (sp. var. mo ahan) adjunct. 1for something or someone to be referred to specifically or particularly. Inilak an he-a mo anhan di nangat. I know that you, in particular, did it. Hiya mo anhan di nangat. He was the one, in particular, who did it. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 9.2.6 - Particles.) 2for something to be easily discovered or understood; obviously. Makattibo mo anhan an adida pinhod. It can obviously be seen that they don’t want it.

mumbullubullug (infl. of bullug) multiple pairs of male and female animals walking in a line. Tibom ta umipaghop kah himpipitun numbullubullug nadah aggayam an napilin miappit ke ha-on ya ohan numbullug ya abu nadah adi miappit. (Genesis 7:2) See to it that you cause to enter seven each of male and female pairs of animals chosen to be sacrificed to me and one male and female pair that will not be sacrifriced.

muN- -an TACR. this circumfix encodes the concept of distributing an action or activity over time, space, or participants; non-past tense; cross-references the agent-subject. Ditakun tatagu ya kulugon takun wadaday mundallanan weno muntayyapan an adi matibo. As for us people, we believe that there are unseen beings who are either walking around or flying in the air. Indai ot ya abut mangalin nahho- wa-el, inang ay, waday munhuhummangan. After awhile, he was approaching the creek, oh my, there were voices conversing. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nahgatan (id. of hogat) idiom. to be hardened like the heartwood of a tree. Tibom ot ta adi madikhal nan hukim te nahgatan ka? Be careful so that you don’t split your leg because are you heartwood?

nakaC1- mod. this prefix is an intensifying modal affix; past tense. Nakal-ot di bungug nan duplanu ten munda-ul. The plane produces a very loud noise when it is about to land. Adiyak pakah-od ke Talakka te nakakkableyak mon muntattattayun. I couldn’t wait for Talakka because I was so tired from hanging. Deket mo ta nakaggibu ya matibo nan duwan kapkapyan di ulun di nuwang nah numbinnongwa. When it (the bench) is really finished, it looks like a misshapen animal with two carabao heads, one on each end. Sim: makaC1-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nangi- -an TACR. this circumfix topicalizes and cross-references a time or place; co-occurs with Class 3 verbal roots; past tense. Tibom di nangiha-adan na nah basket. Find where she placed the basket. Hay nangidongolana ya hi nangappit nah payoh kawad-an di ob-ob. What he heard was in the direction of the ricefield near the spring. Sim: pangi- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

ni-mo adjunct. expresses the idea of the minimum of what should be done or was done; at least. Alam ni-mo tun pechay. At least take this petchay. Wada ni-moy immali. At least someone came. Hay oha bo ya adi nadaman ena itikod an mummogmog hi manuk ni-mo. Another reason is that he cannot stop raising chickens. Hay ke kanak ya tibon takuh hilong hi bigat mu bokon ke ya hi linggu ni-mo. I suggest that we see him tomorrow night, but if not, at least on Sunday. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 9.2.6 - Particles.)

nin adjunct. modifies a statement as expressing a tentative possibility; perhaps; possibly; maybe. Umali nin hi biggatna. He may possibly come tomorrow morning. Pangalim nin kattog di babale nadan udum bon matibo mo bokon ta datuwe nan kalyon an bapor. You think maybe what you see are houses but these are what they call ships. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangmung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have found just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 9.4.4.4 - Possible.) comp. deke pe nin ta comp. wada nin ph. v. damana man nin

nitaguwan pass. 1lifestyle; way of life. An pinhod muh naen nitaguwam? Do you like your lifestyle? ni‑ ‑an. Sim: biyag. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.1 - Nature, character.) 2refers to a person’s life. Tibon yu ta makangngun-unud kayun Apu Dios ta maphod di nitaguwan yu. Be careful to fully follow God so that your life will be good. (sem. domains: 2.6 - Life.) id. bumudduy nitaguwan id. pa-iyon di nitaguwan say. Intaklayan di nitaguwan.

nuN- -inn- rec. this circumfix encodes a reciprocal action or activity; past tense; cross-references subjects. Deket mo ta nakaggibu ya matibo nan duwan kapkapyan di ulun di nuwang nah numbinnongwa. When it (the bench) is really finished, it looks like a misshapen animal with two carabao heads, one on each end. Numbinnalbal dah bulwati. They washed each other’s clothes. Nunkinnaan da hi apatut. They removed each others’ shoe. Sim: muN- -inn-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nunbinnongwa (der. of bongwa) intrans. refers to the two ends of something that is whole, but may be thought of as being in halves; derived from the root meaning to be cut in half. Deket mo ta nakaggibu ya matibo nan duwan kapkapyan di ulun di nuwang nah numbinnongwa. When it (the bench) is really finished, it looks like a misshapen animal with two carabao heads, one on each end.

nuppe adjunct. implies confidence in the accuracy or correctness of what is said or the absolute necessity of an action or event; indisputable. Opwatom nuppe nan hinamal, akudom hi ligau ta madibdiban ta maba-bao. Remove the pot from the fire, ladle out the rice into a winnower so the air will help to cool it. Handih matibo na nuppey kawad-ana, ya inang-ang nan dehdin nah pingngit di wa-el ad Bae. When he was finally able to see where he was, he discovered that he was beside the brook in Bae. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 9.4.4.1 - Certainly, definitely.)

opong 1pass. to be given a share of something. Tibom ta map-ong kayun am-in. See to it that all will have a share. Ugge da nap-ong di tatagu. The people were not all given their shares. 2trans. to distribute something to each one. Inip-ip-ong day nangidatan dan nah pihhu. They distributed evenly their giving of the money. Adim ip-ong di pangidattam nah makan. Do not choose to whom you will give a share of food. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. (sem. domains: 4.3.4.5 - Share with, 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.) der. kap-ong infl. ip-ong

pa- caus. this prefix encodes a causative agent involvement in the action or activity; it is the basic causative form. <This causative prefix co-occurs in combination with many other affixes.> Adim mo painnay-ayyam te mahapul an mun-istudy kah ustu. You are not going to squander your time. Mipatibo an dakol di page da. This shows that they have rice to spare. Sim: pa- -on. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

page comm. 1rice kernel with hull and stem; unmilled rice. Bayuwom nan page. You pound the rice. Napnu din alang da Juan hi page. The rice granary of Juan is full of rice grain. Mipatibo an dakol di page da. This shows that they have rice to spare. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1 - Food from plants.) 2refers to rice plants while in the field. Napai nan page handi dimmalalu. The rice was destroyed when it hailed. der. pagena n. ph. Hongan di page

paka- mod. non-past form; functions to encode the negative ability of an agent to do what the verb expresses; cannot do something. <This prefix co-occurs with the negative form adi.> Athidi bon nah hilong ta adi ka pakahuyop. It’s like that at night, too, so that you cannot sleep. Mu hanada ken iibana ya adi da pakatibo kediyen golang. But as for his companions, they could not see that child. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

paktiw 1comm. pepper, small red and green variety. Umalak ka nah paktiw hidin nah alad. Get some pepper near the fence. Syn: hili. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.3 - Cooking ingredients.) 2trans. to place or use pepper on food. Paktiwam nan ihda mu tibom ta adi makikkan nadanu-unga. Place pepper on the food but see to it that the children will not eat from it. Mumpaktiw damdama yaden golgollang. He uses hot pepper also, yet he is still a child. Ipaktiw da nan ihda an dotag. They will dip the meat in hot pepper. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑. id. kay napaktiwan di tipam

palakpak₂ 1comm. the sound made by clapping of the hands. Takon di nidawwi taku ya madngol di palakpak nadan mun-ang-ang-ang. Even though we are far we can hear the clapping of those who are watching. (sem. domains: 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.) 2trans. to strike hands together; to clap. Mumpalalpak da nadan mundongol hi kanta da. Those who heard their song are clapping their hands. Palakpakan taku te maphod di impatibo da. Let us clap our hands because thier show is good. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

paldang₁ 1intrans. beside; alongside. Numpaldang kamin Mayor dih program. We sat beside the Mayor at the program. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: dongte, hunnup, hag-on. (sem. domains: 8.5.1.2 - Beside.) 2trans. to place something alongside someone or something. Ipaldang mu nan golang ke inana. Place the child beside her mother. Paldangom hi tulang mut tibom ta adi mag-a. Stay beside your brother so that he will not fall. Mipaldang kan ha-oy hin mangan taku. You will stay beside me when we eat. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑, ‑on/‑in‑. 3A Move and position object at site. der. kapaldang der. pinaldang

paloma comm. dove; pigeon. [This type of bird is often bought by lowlanders for pets and food.] Maid moy paloman matiboh tud Kiangan. There are no more doves to be seen here in Kiangan. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.2 - Bird.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

pangi- -an₁ top. this circumfix cross-references a topicalized place, instrument or beneficiary semantic roles or modal word or phrase; non-past tense. Deket palhu di pangiha-angam, mahapul an uggan mu ikiwa ta mun-iingngoy lutu na. If a skillet is used, it is necessary to stir the rice from time to time so that it will be cooked evenly. Intibon ama nah pottok nan pumpangituludan dan hiya ya inang-ang na. My father looked in the direction where they were pushing him and he saw it. Nagibbu ke nan kapkapyan di hagabi, kalyon day algoh pangihakyatan da. When the hagabi-bench is completed, they set the day that it will be brought home. Dahdiy pangidatan nah pihu? To whom will the money be given? Sim: nangi- -an.

paptok 1trans. to care for something or someone; attend to someone. Nahalman di pamaptok kun hiya mu kapyanan makadoggo. I am giving him much care but it is his nature to be sickly. Hi Juan di mumpaptok nah golang ad uwani. Juan will be the one to care for the child today. An inilam an mangipaptok? kanan bon inaonan hi Magappid. Do you know how to take care of it?” Aunt Magappid said. Wadan pidwana ke ya ahi makaippaptok am-in Perhaps the next time, it will be well-planned (lit. well cared for). Ya gapuh kabaelana ya ipaptok ditaku gapuh pangulug takun Jesus ingganay ipaannung na nan nihwangan taku hantuh kapoppogan di luta. (1 Pedro 1:5) And the reason for the power (of that hope) is he will care for us, based on our faith in Jesus, until he fulfills our salvation at the time of the ending of the earth. Kon adiyu tibon an maid di ad-adih naat ke ditaku te impaptok ditaku ya impangapput ditakun APU DIOS? (1 Samuel 30:23b) Don’t you see that nothing bad happened to us because God cared for us and caused us to defeat them? i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑, mangi‑/nangi‑, makai‑. 3I Direct action toward object. (sem. domains: 4.3.4.5.2 - Care for.) 2intrans. to raise domestic animals. Mumpaptok kah chickens. Raise chickens. muN‑/nuN‑. infl. mangipaptok

pattuk (sp. var. patuk) 1intrans. to stand up on something that is higher than the ground or floor. Numpattuk nah ubunan. He was standing on the chair. Pumattuk ka ta pakatibo ka nadah mun-ay-ayyam. He stood up on the chair. Nah ubunan di pattukam. Stand up on the chair. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 2A Movement from one place to another. (sem. domains: 7.1.1 - Stand.) 2trans. to put up on top of something; place something higher. Ipattuk mu tun ihda nah aparador ta adi kanon di ahu. Put the viand up on the cupboard so the dog won’t eat it. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.)

pingngit 1comm. border; edge; rim, e.g. bank of river; side of road. Natanoman hi palawer am-in nan pingngit di bale da. The border of their house was all planted with flowers. Nah pingngit di kalatay pun-ay-ayyaman yu te dakol di mala-uh talak. You play at the side of the road because there are many vehicles passing by. Dakol day u-ungan mun-ay-ayyam nah pingngit di Ibulao. Many children are playing at the edge of the Ibulao river. (sem. domains: 6.5.4.2 - Boundary.) 2to put something on the edge. 2.1trans. to bring to put something to the side or edge. Ipingngit mu na talak te waday lumah-un. Bring the vehicle to the side of the road because someone is going to alight. i‑/iN‑. 2.2intrans. to be on the side or edge of a bed, bench, etc. Mipingngit nah kama nan ong-ongal ta tibonay mag-an dakayu. The older one will stay on the outer side of the bed so that he will see that you do not fall.

pite sta. to be softened, fruit or vegetables; mushy food due to overcooking; may also refer to something that is rotten. Napite nan kolet te nabuluk. The cabbage is mushy because it’s rotten. Tibom ta makappite nan hinamal. See to it that the rice you are cooking becomes very soft. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

pukdit trans. 1to get attention by touching briefly with fingers; light tap or touch with the finger, usually index finger. Pukditam ta iang-ang nah tu. Touch him so that he will face here. Ipukdit muh odog na ta itibo nah tu. Touch him briefly on the back so that he will face here. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. 5C Goal-oriented sites. Sim: dukwit; Sim: pultik. (sem. domains: 7.3.4.1 - Touch.) 2to touch briefly with amorous intent. Adina pinhod an mipaldang ke Pedlo te mamukpukdit. She does not like to sit beside Pedro because he touches with amorous intentions. maN‑/naN‑.

punu 1trans. to fill a container. Punuwom nan aluwog hi liting. Fill the bamboo tube with water. Pinnuk nan lata. I filled the can. ‑on/‑in‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. 2pass. to be filled. Napnu nan latah liting. The can is filled with water. Tibom ta adi makapnu. See to it that it won’t be too full. Indani ya mungkapnu nan lata. After a while the can was almost full. ma‑/na‑, maka‑, mungka‑. (sem. domains: 8.1.8 - Full.) 3trans. to fill a container; the agent is cross-referenced. Ha-oy mamnu nan buwod. I’ll be the one to fill the jar. maN‑/naN‑.

tagu₂ 1sta. (prim) to be alive, to live. 1.1sta. (prim) to be alive, living in contrast to dead; may refer to human, animals and plants. Kanan day nakatte ka, mu tibom an makattagu ka kaya. They say that you are dead but you see that you are very much alive. Handih mataguh apu ya dakol di umalin e mangidung-on hiya. When grandfather was alive, there were many who came to visit him. Kapyanan munligat taku te matagu taku. It’s natural to have hardships because we are alive. Naligat di puhan mate, te inibtikna nan ohan kilon dotag ot punhoplat tun kon puha ot kanan mi pe on nakatte mu kabigatanat emi tibon ya matagu. It’s hard for that cat to die because it ran off with one kilo of meat and its owner beat it and we thought it was dead but the next day we saw it and it was alive. ma‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: 2.6 - Life.) 2comm. source of living. Nganney kitaguwam hin maid di em punhapulan? What is the source of your livelihood if you don’t earn money? ki‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 6.8.2.2 - Make profit, 6.8.2.7 - Earn.) der. kitaguwan der. matagu der. tumagu say. Deket numballin di kabunyan ya maid kitaguwan.

tayo 1comm. the native Ifugao dance. Uggena inilay tayo taku te iBontok. He does not know our dance because he is from Bontoc. Waday kanta, hapit ya tayo an impatibon nadan nalpuh natkonatkon an boble. There were songs, speeches and dances rendered by different groups from different barrios. Sim: tagg’am. (sem. domains: 4.2.4 - Dance.) 2v. to dance the native dance. Aga, manayo taku. Come on, let’s dance. Itayok di tayon di iKiangan. I will dance the Kiangan dance. Maphod di panayum. You dance the native dance well. maN‑/naN‑/paN‑, i‑/iN‑. infl. manayo

tayyap (sp. var. tayap) 1intrans. to fly around; to fly away. Ditakun tatagu ya kulugon takun wadaday mundallanan weno muntayyapan an adi matibo. It is a common belief that there are unseen beings who are either walking around or flying in the air. Adi muntayyapan nah mapat-al. It does not fly around during the day. (This refers to an owl.) Nah barracks di maphod an puntayyapan nadah kite. The barracks are a good place to fly kites. Muntayyapan da nadan manuk te timmakut da nah banniya. The chickens are flying about because they are afraid of the forest lizard. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an, puN‑ ‑an. 1B Movement with a directional component. (sem. domains: 7.2.4.3 - Fly.) 2trans. the wind causes something to fly away; to blow away. Intayap di dibdib nan inhap-em. The wind blew away your laundry. Mitayap nadan papel hin bukatam nan tawang. The papers will be blown away if you open the window. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑.

tipog (sp. var. timog) trans. to bump head against something; may be accidental or intentional. Intipog nay uluna te makahakkit. He bumped his head against something because it was very painful. Mitipog nan ulum nah panto hin adim tibon. Your head will bump against the door frame if you are not careful. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. 3G Move body or body parts directionally. Sim: timog, tukdul. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.)

tippan comm. a dragonfly species, red and blue. Maphod di tibon nan tippan. The red and blue dragonfly looks beautiful. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.)

tiptip (sp. var. titip) trans. to suck to obtain liquid. Tiptipom nan kinalat di ulog. Suck on the snake bite. Tumiptip hi dala nan matok. A leech sucks blood. Tibom ke din puntiptip nan golang. Look at how the child sucks. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, puN‑. (sem. domains: 5.2.2.4 - Manner of eating.)

tukab trans. to remove the cover of something. Tukabam nan bangat tibom hin waday makan. Remove the cover of the pot and see if there is any food. Manukab nan bulangon hi banga. The monkey is removing the cover of the pot. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, maN‑. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: 7.3.7.1 - Uncover.)

tukuk 1to shout. 1.1intrans. to speak with a loud cry or call; to shout usually because of fear or drunkenness, but may also be done to make oneself heard. Muntutukuk da nan tatagu te mungkapuulan di babale da. The people are shouting because their houses are burning. Muntukuk hi Daulayan te timmakut nah ongal an puha. Daulayan is shouting because he was frightened by the big cat. muN‑/nuN‑. Speech Verbs - Manner of speaking. Sim: tudodan. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.1.1 - Shout.) 1.2intrans. to call loudly once; to give a single shout. Tumukutukuk nan nabutong. The drunk keeps shouting. Tumkuk man hin ipatibom ke hiya nan bigi. She will surely shout if you show her the worm. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2D Vocal sounds, expressing feeling. 2to shout at. 2.1trans. to shout at someone; the person being shouted at is highlighted by the affix. Tukukam nadan u-unga ta adida mun-ay-ayyam nah payo. Shout at the kids so that they will not play in the field. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 2.2trans. to shout in order to make oneself heard; to relay a message to people within a cluster of houses or even the next village by shouting, e.g. rest day, the first thunder, etc.; the message itself is prominent rather than the loudness of the shout. [Ifugao houses were built in clusters around their fields.] Initkuk dan tungo ad uwani kinali umeyak hi habal. They shouted a message that it is a rest day today so I am going to the swidden plot. Nagibbuy programa ot waday nangitkuk hi daanay epangenan di tatagu. After the program, someone shouted out the places where the different groups will eat their lunch. i‑/ini‑, mangi‑/nangi‑. 3trans. to cry loudly in a manner that resembles shouting. Itkuk nay koga na. He is crying loudly. i‑/iN‑. 4comm. a loud cry or call ; a shout. Madngol nah bobley tukuk na handi natalak nah muyung. His shout could be heard in the village when he got lost in the forest. Sim: ingal.

tupig trans. to stab something or someone with a knife. Tupigon da kanu hin tibon dah di. According to them they will stab him if they see him there. Itpig nan hinalong kinali halipat-am. He will use the double-bladed-knife to stab, that is why be careful. Waday nanpig nah ahu mi. Somebody stabbed our dog. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, maN‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: tuwik, ubut. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)

tuppa (sp. var. tupa) 1comm. the fluid excreted by the salivary glands; saliva; spit. (sem. domains: 2.2.3 - Spit, saliva.) 2to spit. 2.1trans. to spit something on someone or something. Adi kayu mun-ay-ayyam hina te tuppaan dakayu nadah mummomad tap-o. Do not play there because the the betelnut chewers above will spit on you. Ituppam nah lata. Spit in the can. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. 2.2intrans. to spit, implies a continuing act. Dakol day tatagu yaden muntuppa ka. There are many people around and yet you are spitting. muN‑/nuN‑. 2.3intrans. the act of spitting. Intibok ya maid di tagu ot tumuppaak ya nala-u ka. I looked to see and there was no one so I spat and you passed by. Handih himbatangan dih kalimana ya ustun eyak timmupan dih kanal It was last Friday afternoon when I went out to spit in the canal. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

ubun 1to sit. 1.1intrans. to sit down. Umbun ka ni-an ta ek ayagan hi ama. Sit down while I go and call for father. Inumbun da nah luhung ot mummoma da. They sat down on the mortar and chewed betelnut ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2B Movement, change of position. Sim: halupinnak. (sem. domains: 7.1.2 - Sit.) 1.2intrans. to continue sitting. Aga, mangmangbun kayu pet umeyak. Come on, you all keep sitting while I go. maN‑ CV(C). 2to sit. 2.1trans. the place for sitting is cross-referenced by the affix. Tibom ta adim ubunan nan puha. Be careful not to sit on the cat. ‑an/‑in‑‑an. 2.2advpred. to sit as a manner of doing something else. <Morphophonology: The first vowel is lost, and the initial glottal stop and the second consonant metathesize.> Inib-un dan mungkanta. They sat as they sang. i/iN. 3intrans. to be idle; to sit around constantly, doing nothing. Umubuubun kah kabigabigat. You are idle everyday. ‑um‑ CV(C)CV. (sem. domains: 6.1.2.4.2 - Lazy.) 4a seat. 4.1nom. a thing to sit on; seat, bench, chair. Mumpaha-ad kah basket nah ubunan. Have the basket placed on the seat. Hay ngadan bon nan kay ubunan an eda alan hi muyung ya hagabi damdama. The name of that thing like a bench which they get from the forest is also hagabi. ‑an. (sem. domains: 5.1.1 - Furniture.) 4.2sta. for seats to be occupied. Nab-unan am-in di ubunan kinali tumataddog kami. All the seats are taken, that is why we are standing. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. der. ubunan id. umubuubun

udot adjunct. 1expressing perplexity. An daana udot di pangal-am hi em itugatugal? Where do you get the money to be continuously gambling. Kon adita udot mundogoh athitu? Why, won’t one get sick that way? Uggek bo udot inila nan kali da. I didn’t even know their language. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 3.2.4 - Understand.) 2expression of what is contrary to expectation; something is unusual. Tipe udot ta em alan di bulwatik. Why in the world do you take my clothes? Tibom ke udot din ungan nala-ing an munsala. You see, that child is unusually good in dancing. 3envious expression of displeasure; displeased. [The udot in this sentence expresses some sarcasm and jealousy. The true English equivalent would be a sarcastic intonational contour.] Inay udot man-un he-a te dakol di pihhum. It’s fine for you because you have plenty of money! 4expression of surprise. Kayang udot waday payung mu! Hey! Good for you, you’ve got an umbrella! der. mah-udot

udum₁ trans. 1to add condiments or other food to what is being cooked. Ta mamangulun ipulitu ta deket nage-geengngan hi ittay ne inid-um di amput ya danggu And fry first until it is brown and add garlic and onions. Ne inid-um di sagpaw an tinapa weno sardinas. Then, add tinapa or sardines. i‑/ini‑. 3C Move something and combine it with or attach it with something else. 2to increase; to add to; to include. <Morphology: The maki- prefix expresses a participatory activity; the reduplication expresses the habitual aspect> Tibom bot adika makidkid-um hi fraternities te maid di hilbin dadiye.. See to it also that you don’t join any fraternity groups because they are useless. Kanan di e udman nan pihu yaden e talakon otyaabu. One would wish to increase his money (by gambling) but instead he loses it. Maid di ena id-um hi kanomnoman ya mumbalin tan kay hiyyahiyya. Nothing is added to your wisdom and we may become proud and boastful. i/iN, an/in‑ ‑an, maki CV(C). (sem. domains: 8.1.4.2 - Increase.) der. hin-uddum infl. mid-uman

uhdung 1trans. to look down on something from a high elevation. Wada nah kaiw ot uh-dungganan dakami. He was in the tree and looked down at us. Uhdungan yu din nag-an baka. Look down at that cow that fell. Deket wada tah tud Awwa ya mauhdungan di Amduntug hi South ya maudungan di Hulungan ya Nagacadan hi North. Anyone who is in Awwa is overlooking Amduntog to the South and overlooking Hulungan and Nagacadan to the North. Muntikid ka ta datngam nan tap-on di bilid ta ahika mun-uhdung ya ahi matibo nan balemi. Ascend until you reach the top of the mountain and look down and you will be able to see our house. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented sites. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.) 2intrans. to look down. Muntikid ka ta datngam nan tap-on di bilid ta ahika mun-uhdung ya ahi matibo nan bale mi. Ascend until you reach the top of the mountain and look down and you will be able to see our house. muN‑/nuN‑.

ukyad trans. to spread out fingers, open palm. Ukyadom nan gamat mu ta tibon tay gagamalom. Spread your fingers and let us see what you are grasping. Inukyad nay takle na ya timmayap on hamuti. He spread his fingers and a bird flew away. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.3.4.5 - Actions of the hand.)

ul’at comm. blood vessel; a vein or a nerve. Makattiboy ulat hi huki na. The veins in his legs are very visible. (sem. domains: 2.1.8 - Internal organs.)

ule 1sta. to be kind; to be calm. Indai ya kanana pay di “Maphod ta hiyo- nan bumdang ya- maule. Later on, he added “It’s good that the bumdang-spirits are kind.” Maule ot di bibiyo te umidat hi kendi, hiya ina? an kanak bo. “Mother, fairies are kind aren’t they because they give us candy,” I said. Makaulle kan ha-oy. You are very kind to me. ma‑/na‑. 6B Characteristis of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: 4.3.4 - Do good to.) 2intrans. to be careful; do something carefully; do something slowly Intugun inada an mun-ule dah dalan ya mundongol dah iskul ta waday inilaon da. Their mother instructed them to be careful on the way and to listen in class so they would learn something. Nun-ule-ule da te uma-agol hi Bugan an mundalan nah madanglol an banong. They walked slowly because Bugan was cautious walking on the slippery dikes. Tibom ta mun-ul-ulen malutu. See that it cooks slowly. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 4.4.3.4 - Caution.) infl. maule infl. ul-ule

ulu comm. 1the head. Punggung-uwak di uluk te uggek inilay itudok kuh tu. I am scratching my head because I do not know what to write here. Ammunay uluk an in-agtuk. I have nothing. (lit. I’m only carrying my head.) Deket mo ta nakaggibu ya matibo nan duwan kapkapyan di ulun di nuwang nah numbinnongwa. When it (the bench) is really finished, it looks like two carabao heads, one on each end. (sem. domains: 2.1.1 - Head.) 2riddle Waday ohan bilid an pituy uwang na. (ulu) There is a mountain that has seven holes. (head) der. mamangulu der. pangulu der. panguluwan der. ulluwan id. nimamantuk hi ulu

wada 1exispred. this form predicates that something exists; it is tense and plurality neutral. <This existential predicate can be used to equate all of the English ‘be’ copular verbal phrases.> Waday oha ke dakayu an immalin nungkugkug handih hilong. There was one of you who came to knock at the door last night. Hinunggopak ya wadah ina. When I entered, my mother was there. Ahika umalih andai ta waday kalyok ke he-a. Come by and by and I will tell you something. (lit. there will be something) Etakuh bale da ta wada ke ot di kinailana ya ipainum nan ditaku. Let’s go to their house and if he should have (lit. there is) rice wine, he will let us drink it. Waday kanta, hapit ya tayo an impatibon nadan nalpuh natkonatkon an boble. There were songs, speeches and dances rendered by different groups from different barrios. Wadan ustu moy bidbibidbid hi novels. There has been enough reading of novels. (sem. domains: 9.1.1.1 - Exist.) 2nom. refers to the location of someone or something. <Morphology: kawad-ana.> Handih matibo na nuppey kawad-ana, ya inang-ang nan dehdin nah pingngit di wa-el ad Bae. When he was finally able to see where he was, he discovered that he was beside the brook in Bae. Mu natimtimot uggena inila nu ngannen bobley kawad-ana, ot nomnommonan had-onay kabiggatana. But he had lost his sense of direction and did not know where he was so he decided to wait until daylight. ka‑ ‑an na. comp. wada nin comp. wadahdi comp. wadahna comp. wadahtu comp. wadan wada der. mawada der. wadwada-an id. nawadaan ph. v. wada tad

wano 1comm. a loincloth; a g-string. [The loincloth is still worn for special ceremonies.] In-abol nay wanon nan inayana. She wove the loincloth of her husband. Gen: gamgam; spec: binuhlan. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2intrans. to wear a loincloth. O-oha moy matibon nunwano. Very few men wearing loincloths are seen now. Iwanom nan binanom ke Lomlom. Use the loincloth you borrowed from Lomlom. Wanowan yu hi Juan te manayo da nah iskul. Help Juan wear the loincloth because they are going to dance in school. muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

wingi 1trans. to turn the head to the side. Iwingim ad Lagawe ta tibom an waday dilag da. Turn your head towards Lagawe and see if they have lights. i‑/iN‑. 3G Move body parts directionally. Sim: atuwingwing, liggu, balungango. (sem. domains: 7.1.9 - Move a part of the body.) 2v. to turn the head from side to side. Handi ke ya deket test mi on mahapul an adi kami munwingiwingi. At that time, whenever we had a test, we must not turn our heads from side to side. muN‑/nuN‑ CV(C)CV‑. 3trans. to turn head to see something in particular; this form expresses a purpose for turning the head. <The affix cross-references a goal-object.> Oggan mu wingiyon nan golang an mun-ay-ayyam nah dola. Once in a while turn your head to check on the child playing in the yard. ‑on/‑in‑.

ya 1conj. and; a conjoining conjunction that expresses an additive relationship between clauses or constituents of a noun phrase. Imme kami ya maid kayu. We went and you were not there. Maka ya ta baddanganak. Please come and help me. Ambiambilog ya dakkodakkol di tatagu. It is wide and there are plenty of people. Waday kanta, hapit ya tayo an impatibon nadan nalpuh natkonatkon an boble. There were songs, speeches and dances rendered by different groups from different barrios. Mumboga da ya mungkail da. They get rice and they make wine. Coordinating conjunctions. (sem. domains: 9.6.1.1 - And, also.) 2lk. links the constituents of an equational clause. Umboy biggatna ya munlilingot ka. Even in the morning, you perspire. Hay humagabi ya hay kadangyan. Hay ngadan bon nan kay ubunan an eda alan hi muyung ya hagabi damdama. comp. deke ya comp. deya comp. yaden