Search results for "yaden"

yaden (den) (comp. of ya, den) conj. 1connects a clause with information that expresses contraexpectation and is antithetical to that encoded in the preceding clause; and yet. Maid inat kun hiya yaden dumuntuk. I did nothing to him and yet he wants to box me. Pituy toona yaden makangngun-unud ya makabbaddang. He was only seven years old, and yet he was obedient and helpful. Wada da nan munhona ta kanan di bumaddang da yaden mungkulkullawing da ot ya aabu ta mid-um di dam-ot da. There are those naughty ones who say they will help carry the load, and yet instead they hold on to the pole and swing from one side to the other, thereby adding to the load. Ugge nabubungan yaden ahi udan mo. It’s not roofed, and yet it’s almost rainy season. Ammunay katem yaden mabungot ka. You are about to die, and yet you are angry. Compounding conjunctions and adjuncts. (sem. domains: - Concession.) 2connects a clause encoding an event that takes place at the same time as the one in the preceding clause; frequently, there is also a contraexpectation concept expressed in the context of the conjunction use; while. Munha-ang yaden mangan. He is cooking while eating. Man-un dakami te nakangngan kami yaden toattoan da peman di udum. Good for us because we ate while the others did not. Mungngahngahak yaden mungkaliyak hi bale mi. I gasped for breath while I was shouting at our house. (sem. domains: - At the same time.)

yaden deman ot conj. this phrase is a combination of conjunctions and adjuncts that connect two clauses; it combines the idea of contraexpectation or contradiction related to the first statement, along with the emphatic modal idea that the truth of the second statement should be obvious; and yet, see there; instead, see there. Kay makaphod di aton da ya kalyon da yaden deman ot an gaga-ihoy wadah nomnom da. (Psalm 26:4) It is as though what they do and say is very good, and yet, see there, what is in their mind is bad. Kay makakullug an makaphod da yaden deman ot an hauhaulon da nadan nabalun binabait pun-ala day limmu da. (Mark 12:40) It is as though they are truly very good, instead see there, they are deceiving widows so that they can get their property. Compounding conjunctions and adjuncts. (sem. domains: - Contradict.)

‑um‑ ‑an TACR. 1this circumfix encodes a non-past tense process and cross-references a specific object. Ya hay importanten punggastuwam ya nadan liblum mahapul mu ta maid di humlun hi bumabaan di grades mu. And the most important thing is to spend (your money) on those books you need so that nothing will cause your grades to be lowered. Oha bo ya nakalligat di pumalattugan. Another reason is, their guns were hard to shoot (not automatic). Bumanidbidak hi liblu nah bakasyon. I do nothing but read books during vacation. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2non-past tense, reciprocal action. Pumanuddugan da yaden nahuyop hi inada. They keep running after each other while their mother is asleep.

abtu (sp. var. aptu) to anticipate. 1.1trans. to look forward to something; eagerly await someone or something; the affix cross-references that which is anticipated. Abtuwan day aliyana. They are eagerly anticipating her arrival. Abtuwan nay ayan da. He was eager for them to leave. Naabtuwan ka yaden ugge ka immali. You were waited for eagerly, yet you did not come. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, na‑ ‑an. Class 2C, Emotion and sensation . (sem. domains: - Hope.) 1.2intrans. to anticipate something with impatience; the negative component of waiting and time passing is highlighted; the person feeling the impatience is cross-referenced by the affix. Uma-abtuh Bugan an nunhood ke he-a. Bugan was impatiently waiting for you. Umabtuwak hi kahilongana. I am waiting impatiently for nighttime. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. infl. umab-abtu

ahibungaan (comp. of bunga, ahi) nom. refers to the time of maturing fruit. Maid pey bungana yaden ahibungaan. It had no fruit even though it was fruit season. Gen: ahi. (sem. domains: 1.5.6 - Growth of plants.)

ahihopnak (comp. of hopnak, ahi) nom. season for sowing rice seeds; making seed beds. Ahihopnak yaden ugge naaladu nan payo. It is the season to sow rice yet the field is not yet plowed. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

ak pers. 1I; first person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 2 subject pronouns, cross-referenced by verbal affixes. <Morphophonology: When a verb ends in a vowel, this pronoun attaches to the verb as an enclitic, and a consonant will be inserted between the verb and the pronoun.> Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Immi-ingleyak an pinhod kun umanamut mo indani bo kaya ya uminghaak. I felt so lonely that I wanted to return home, but after a while I became adjusted. Mungngahngahak yaden mungkaliyak hi bale mi. I gasped for breath and yet I shouted at our house. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2me; first person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 3 object pronouns; cross-referenced by verbal affixes. Adiyak danugon te mahakitanak Don’t hit me because I easily feel pain. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language.

an-anu trans. to do something harmful. Ugge da ot inan-anu yaden kinumga. They did not do anything and yet he cried. ‑on/‑in‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

ba-ba adv. expresses that it will be a short time until an event occurs. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Maid ba-ba yaden immalih Bugan. In a short time Bugan came. {literary} Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.3 - Indefinite time.) Language of Borrowing: Keley-i Kallahan.

balin₂ (sp. var. ballin) change. 1.1intrans. to change position, generally a reversal; to turn over or upside down. Iwagot muh apu ta mumballin ta adi mundanggok. You shake grandfather so that he’ll change his position and he’ll stop snoring. Makabayyag an mabigat yaden bumalibalinak. Morning is a long time in coming while I toss and turn (trying to sleep). muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Become, change state.) 1.2trans. to reverse the position of an object. Balinom nan inha-ang mut adi mageeng. You turn over what you are cooking so that it will not be charred. ‑on/‑in‑. 1.3nom. expresses the meaning or interpretation of words or something symbolic. Te kibalinana ya kaddakaddangyana te dakol di longona. Because the meaning is that he is very rich because he butchers many (animals to feed people). ki‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.5.8 - Interpreting messages.) der. kibalinana infl. balibalinon

ballahiwe intrans. to bypass inadvertently; there is a simultaneity component which gives the meaning that two people were in the same place at the same time. Ek damuwon hi Maria ad Lagawe yaden numballah-iwe kami ot ya abu. I was going to meet Maria at Lagawe but we bypassed each other inadverdently. (As I was going, she was coming and we met on the way without knowing.) muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: kalah-iwang.

ban-ule sta. embarassment related to not sharing what one has. Kababan-uley manganak hi tinapay yaden adida nan inap-apuk. It is embarassing that I am eating bread and my grandchildren are not. (The person should be sharing.) general: Lambrecht, in his dictionary, states that this is a Hudhud word-base, and defines it simply as ‘the notion of embarassment’. Although it may not be restricted to the epic, it may not be used in the common language. ka‑ CV‑. Sim: bain. (sem. domains: - Ashamed.)

bang-al 1comm. hips and upper buttocks. Ong-ongal di bang-al di binabai mu hay linalaki. The hips of women are bigger than those of men. Nan babai an ittay di bang-al na an mumpaligat an muntungo. The woman who has small (narrow) hips will have difficulty in childbirth. Hanada ken aammod ya adida pihday bang-al di babuy hi u-unga te hay kanan da ya adida maam-ama weno main-ina ya humakit di bang-al da. The old folks prohibit the young people from eating the hip part of the pig because they say they will suffer backache if they do. Sim: tim-uy, tipa. (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.) 2sta. to have wide hips. Namag-al hi Jose yaden lalaki. The hips of Jose are wide yet he is a man. na‑.

bidade trans. to scrutinize something by holding and turning, usually done when buying something. Bidabidadeom yaden adim gatangon. You are turning it over and over and yet you will not buy it. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: bilibili, binbin, biling. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.)

biggabiggatna (infl. of biggatna) comm. very early morning; dawn. Biggabiggatna yaden umutang ka pihhu It is early morning, and yet you are borrowing money. (sem. domains: - Time of the day.)

boh-ol 1comm. to feel displeasure or indignation; anger. Adika ni-an mih-up inggana mabaoy boh-ol na. Don’t go near him yet until his anger cools off. (sem. domains: - Angry.) 2trans. to be angry and scold. Boh-olan daka ke ya adika humumang. If they scold you, do not answer back. Mumboh-ol hi amana yaden limmah-un. His father was scolding yet he went out. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: bungotan. (sem. domains: - Rebuke.) 3intrans. feeling or showing anger; to be angry. Adika bumoh-ol te langlangkak ya abu. Don’t be angry because I was only teasing. Bimmoh-ol mo kanuh Pangka ya ho- mundopap da. So, according to Pangka, he got mad and er...they grappled. Bimmoh-ol hi ama ot pumboh-olan dakami. My father was so angry that he scolded us. Ek ot humangon mu uggek te tinibok an bimmoh-ol I was about to answer him back but I didn’t because I saw that he was angry. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2C, Emotion and sensation. infl. bimmoh-ol

boses comm. sound uttered by the mouth of a living creature especially man. Mababol di boses na yaden babai. Her voice is low yet she is a girl. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) Language Of Borrowing: English: voice.

boye adj. immature fruit; unripe fruit. Boye nan mangga yaden pungkan da. The mango is unripe and yet they are eating it. Qualifier. (sem. domains: 1.5.6 - Growth of plants.)

bugit sta. the skin responds to fear, causing goose bumps. Dalanona yaden nabugibbugit. He will walk on and yet he is having many goose bumps. ma‑/na‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: 2.1.4 - Skin.)

busina 1comm. a vehicle’s horn. Napai di businan nan tolak na. The horn of his vehicle is destroyed. (sem. domains: - Vehicle.) 2intrans. honking of vehicles. Mumbusina da yaden mihahhaad ka nah gawwan di kalata. They are honking their horns yet you continue to stay in the middle of the road. Bumusina ka hin waday tagu nah kalata. Blow your horn if there is a person on the street. muN‑, ‑um‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

CV intensifier. the reduplication of the first syllable of a verbal root is the form of a morpheme that encodes intensity; very. Mihmihdi nah munhihilong ya nah kakaiw an dakol di hapang nan mahdol di tubuna. It stays in very dark places or in trees with thick, leafy branches. Anakkayang peman hi Bugan tipet eka humahallaman an ume yaden maid ni-an di lugan. Wow (how excited you must be) Bugan, why do you go very early when there are no jeepneys yet. Gadgadam nan bila te dakol di lamut na ya napipitok. Scrape the tubers because they have many roots and they are very muddy.

dalan₁ 1comm. a place for walking; path; trail; way. Maid di dalan hitu. There is no path here. Indani ya- ek bo igibok ya pindonak nin ot ieyak nah nuntap-on dalan. Later on, when I became aware, maybe he held me then took me to the upper road. Sim: kalata, kah-on. (sem. domains: - Road.) 2to walk. 2.1intrans. to move about on foot; to walk. <Affixation: The circumfix set muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an expresses both a durative aspect and the site-concept of a widely spread area for the walking, i.e. walking around. > Mundallan mo nan golang. The child walks now. Ditakun tatagu ya kulugon takun wadaday mundallanan weno muntayyapan an adi matibo. It is a common belief that there are unseen beings who are either walking around or flying in the air. muN‑/nuN‑, muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Walk.) 2.2intrans. to walk, with a starting point in view. Dumallan mo nan unga. The child can already walk. um/imm. 3to walk by, bypass or through a place. 3.1trans. to walk, passing by a place or through a medium. Indaladalan muh di yaden adim pinhod an makihummangan ke hiya. You are always passing there yet you do not like to talk with her. Idalan taku nah wa-el. We will pass through the creek. Daanay pangidalanam? Where will you pass (lit. path/walk)? i‑/iN‑. nangi‑/pangi‑ + ‑an. 3.2trans. to walk on a path, road with prominence given to the thing walked on. Maid di dalanon yuh tu. There is no place to walk here. on/in. id. kay bakkukul an dumalan id. kay gawgaway pundalan id. kay kabayun dumalan infl. ipadalan

dam-ot 1proc. to become heavy. Dumam-ot nan inpah-on da. The thing they are carrying will become heavy. Dumam-ot hin naupol. It will become heavy if it is soaked. Dimmam-ot. It became heavy. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: - Heavy.) 2trans. to cause to be heavy. Idam-ot na nan kinana. The food he ate will make him heavy. i‑/iN‑. 3sta. to be heavy in weight. Madam-ot nan karga. The cargo is heavy. Hingkalton mu makaddam-ot. It’s only one-box-full but very heavy. ma‑/na‑, makaC‑. 4nom. weight. Wada da nan munhona ta kanan di bumaddang da yaden mungkulkullawing da ot ya aabu ta mid-um di dam-ot da. There are those naughty ones who instead of helping carry the load, hold on to the pole and swing from one side to the other, thereby adding to the weight.

damuna advpred. 1to delimit time by expressing the simultaneity of two different events; meantime; meanwhile. Um-umbun taku ni-an ta damunay kalutuwan nan kanon. Let us sit while the food is being cooked. Idadaan mu nan panganan ta damunay datngan da. Set the table, while waiting for them to arrive. Time. (sem. domains: - At the same time.) 2to delimit an amount; enough or more than enough; may relate to quantifying space, amount, accomplishment. Damunay ginastum yaden uggem pay ginibbuy adal mu. You spent much yet you still haven’t finished your studies. Damunay nginunum. You have accomplished more than enough. Damunay ginabutam. You cleared enough, a wide space. (sem. domains: 8.1.7 - Enough.)

dapig trans. to change shape by pressing; to flatten. Dapigom nan kapyaom an tinapay. Flatten the bread you are to bake. Mangapya kah gampa mu dapigom ta nalaka an miagtu. Make a gampa-basket, but make it flat so that it’s easy to carry on the head. Nadapig di nangat mu yaden kanak di mukkolom. You made it flat, yet I told you to round it. Hay nadapig an batuy ialim hitu. Bring a flat stone here. Mungkadapig nan uluna. Its head is becoming flat. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑, mungka‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.)

dawawa intrans. to reach out hand(s) to take something: to extend hand(s) to receive something. Idawawa yuy takle yu ta midatan kayu. Extend your hands so you will be given something. Oh-ohha tun gattuk yaden am-in kayu ya pun-idawawa yuy takle yu. There is only one sweet potato yet you are all reaching out your hands (to get it). i‑/iN‑. 3G Move body parts directionally. (sem. domains: 7.1.9 - Move a part of the body.)

deman (comp. of de, man) adjunct. expresses a contradictory alternative; but instead. Pangalik on bumaddang yaden deman ot an mangako. I thought he would help but instead he came to steal. Attitudinaal. Sim: tonna, imbes.

dibdib 1air. 1.1comm. the invisible mixture of gases that surround the earth; air. Yahyahon takuy dibdib. We breathe air. Kalubam hi daun ya ihamad mu ta maid hunggop hi dibdib. Cover the jar tightly with banana leaves so that no air enters. (sem. domains: 1.1.2 - Air.) 1.2comm. air in motion; wind. Waday nin puwok ad uwani te nakal-ot di dibdib. Maybe there is a typhoon today because the wind is very strong. (sem. domains: - Wind.) 2blowing wind. 2.1intrans. for the wind to blow. Dumibdib ke ya mitayyap nan papel. If the wind blows, the paper will be blown away. Mundibdib an pun-itayap nay nungkihap-e. The wind blew the clothes on the clothesline away. um/imm, muN/nuN. Sim: huy’uhuy, hub-’ud, budabud, yupuyup, puwok, budibud. 2.2sta. to be cooled by the blowing wind, i.e. breeze. Adida madibdiban yaden pun-ayagam dida. They aren’t being cooled-by-the-breeze and yet you are calling them. Opwatom nuppe nan hinamal, akudom hi ligau ta madibdiban ta maba-bao. Remove the pot from the fire, ladle out the rice into a winnower so the air will help to cool it. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an, muN/nuN. 2.3trans. the wind blows and moves something. Idibdib na nan papel hin adim otnan. The wind will blow the paper if you don’t put something on top of it. i‑/iN‑. 3idiom. riddle - wind is the answer. Nala-uwak ya uggeyak inangang. (dibdib) I passed by but you didn’t see me. (wind)(riddle) id. kay dibdib ya abun munlau

dondon₁ trans. to push aside. Ugge namag-anan nan inhap-ek yaden dinondon mut punhap-eyam. The clothes I hung were not dry, yet you pushed them aside so you could hang clothes. Idondon mu nan inhap-em. Push aside your laundry. Adim dondonon. Don’t push it aside. Adi madondon. It cannot be pushed aside. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.)

dunu intrans. to be unaware; to be ignorant of something. Mundundun-u taku yaden mumpapatte dad Lagawe. We were unaware that they were fighting in Lagawe. muN‑/nuN‑. Opp: inila. (sem. domains: 3.2.3 - Know.)

eka pers. you, singular; the form is a compound of the marker e and the 2nd person, singular personal pronoun, a member of Set 2; the form is preposed before the verb, encodes the subject grammatical relation and is cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Tipet eka humahallaman an ume yaden maid ni-an di lugan. Why do you go so very early when there are no rides/jeepneys yet. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

eta pers. we-two; the form is a compound of the marker e and the second person, dual personal pronoun, a member of Set 1 and Set 2; the form is preposed before the verb and encodes the subject grammatical relation. Eta tuwali madlig on mahapul mitakke ta kinali ongal di umeh piliti. Every time you (we-two) move, it is necessary to ride so that’s why a big amount goes to fares. Kudukdul nay takon di nawotwot ta mu ta makangngun-unud tan APU DIOS, mu nan eta kadangyan yaden dakol di kabulubulunan. (Proverbs 15:16) It is better even if we are poor but really follow the LORD than that we are rich and yet have many troubles. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

hagmuk trans. to sprinkle or scatter powder or other dried substance. Pun-ihagmuk nan iniggid mu di binokbok yaden pun-ikiwan di winawwan mu. As you sprinkle the yeast over the rice with your left hand, you keep stirring with your right. i‑/iN‑, puN‑ i‑. 3B Move and release object. (sem. domains: - Separate, scatter.)

hapud 1trans. to invoke spirits by chewing betelnut, then blowing on the affected person to remove pain or itches caused by a spirit, e.g. pile, bibiyo, ammod or tamyo spirits. Ihap-ud mu ta makaan nan kinalat di kamiling. Blow away so that the itches caused by the ikamiling-tree will vanish. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: - Religious ceremony.) 2comm. a breath blown on a sick person. Ammunay hap-ud na yaden pinumhod nan mundogo. Only his breath and the sick one got well.

haut 1trans. to deny or disclaim something, what is denied is cross-referenced. Ihaut na an hiyay nangako. He denies that he was the one who stole. i‑/iN‑. Speech Verbs - Manner of speaking. (sem. domains: - Tell a lie.) 2intrans. to deny or disclaim something. Tipet munhaut ka? Why do you deny it? Waday nangang-ang an hiya di nangako nah gawgawa yaden namahig di punhaut na. Someone saw him steal the duck yet he vehemently denies it. muN‑/nuN‑, puN‑.

hoddomna (infl. of hodom) comm. evening; twilight; sun has already set. Hoddomna mo yaden wadada pay nah payo. It is already twilight and they are still in the ricefields. (sem. domains: - Time of the day.)

hongngok 1sta. to be inattentive, to be preoccupied. Tipe anhan di hongngok mu? Why are you so preoccupied? (sem. domains: 3.2 - Think.) 2trans. to ignore what is going on because of being preoccupied. Hohongngokom yaden mundadama da! You are just looking on inattentively and yet they are fighting. Hohongngokom yaden dakol di mingunu. You are just staring into space yet there are a lot of things to be done. CV‑ ‑on.

hukkihukit (der. of hukit) advpred. to be crowded together because of small or narrow space. Hukkihukkit nan kiha-adan mi. The place where we are living is crowded. Hukkihukkit yaden adikayu madlig ahan. It’s very crowded as you can see and yet you won’t move. Evaluative.

hulp’ip 1comm. a whistle; the sound made by placing two fingers in the mouth and blowing to produce a whistle sound. Inukad nan pulit nan hulpip na ot hap-udana. The policeman brought out his whistle and blew it. 2intrans. to blow a whistle. Munhulpip nan pulit yaden mange nan tolak. The policeman was blowing his whistle yet the vehicle kept on going. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. Hulpipan daka ke ya iohnong mu. If they blow their whistle on you, you stop. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

ihbu 1comm. fluid excretion from kidneys; urine. Mun-agub di ihbun di kabayu. The urine of the horse smells bad. 2intrans. to excrete fluid from kidneys; to urinate. Mun-iihbu yaden mundallanan. He is urinating while walking. Umihbu ka mod uwani ta adim ihbuwan nan pantalon mu. Urinate now so that you will not urinate in your pants. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. Class 2E Physiological functions. (sem. domains: 2.2.7 - Urinate, urine.) 3trans. to urinate. <The affixes cross-reference an object that is, the urine, or its placement.> Iihbum nah kad-an the nitanom. Urinate where there are plants. Paihbuwom nan golang te pinhod nan umihbu. Let the baby urinate because he wants to urinate. Umihbu ka mod uwani ta adim ihbuwan nan pantalon mu. Urinate now so that you will not urinate in your pants. i‑/iN‑, pa‑ ‑on, i‑ ‑an. id. kay wa-el di ihbu na

inay-aw (inay) adjunct. expression of surprise, can be positive or negative. Tinibom hi Bugan an e nanayo yaden nabutong. Inay-aw tipet maid di baina. I saw Bugan dance and yet she is drunk. Oh my, why doesn’t she have any shame? Inay-aw, nakagganas man! Wow! What a wonderful time we’ve had! Inay-aw, tumakutak, indae ya matalak da! Oh my! I’m so afraid they’ll get lost. Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

inolas (der. of olas) advpred. to do something each hour; hourly. Inolas nan nanginum tun agah yaden nanongnan nundogo. He swallowed this medicine hourly and yet he is still sick. Inolas hi kabigabigat on ena tibon nan appad na. Hourly each day, he goes to see his bird-trap. Time. (sem. domains: - Often, 8.4.1 - Period of time.)

isplikar 1intrans. to explain something. Mun-isplikar nan mittulu yaden mungngala ka. The teacher is explaining something yet you are very noisy. muN‑/nuN‑, puN‑ i‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.8 - Interpreting messages.) 2nom. explanation. Donglom nan pun-iisplikar na. Listen to his explanation. puN-. 3intrans. to explain something in particular. Iisplikar na hin nganney aton nah ngunu. He is explaining how to do the work. i‑/iN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: explicar.

iwe intrans. 1to be independent from parents; married couples to live independently from parents. Immiwe da Pedro ke Maria. Pedro and Maria are living independently from their parents. Nabayag dan nun-ahawa yaden ugge da ni-an immiweh. They have been married a long time now and yet they are not yet independent from their parents. Maphod di umiwe ta hin nalahin ta. It’s proper and fitting to live separately (from parents) when married. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. 2to live alone, separated from family or others. [It is unusual for anyone to live alone in Ifugao society.] Immiweh Mattimah baleda. Maxima lives alone in their house. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

ka-₃ TACR. this prefix encodes a neutral or present tense that co-occurs when the CV(C)CV reduplicant highlights a continuous activity. Kapalapalang nah dulung. He keeps on cutting the floor. Kakalikali ka yaden adik maawatan. You keep on talking yet I cannot understand. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

kahon 1comm. wooden box; crate. Ipal-um mu nan balat nah kahon. Ripen the bananas in the wooden box. Ihaad mu nan ukkon nah kahon. Place the puppy inside the wooden box. Sim: kaban. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to place in a box. Nikahon nan impaalin tulang ku yaden binukatan yu pay. The one sent by my sister was placed in a box and yet you still opened it. Pun-ikahon yu datuwe ta ahi taku munlugan. Put these in boxes before we ride. Dahdi boy nangikahon an uggek binilang. Who again put it in the box when I did not count it? Naane bulwatim te ingkahon mu nabayag. Your clothes have been eaten by termites because they have been in a box for a long time. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑, puN‑ i‑, mangi‑/nangi‑. 3A Move and position at site. (sem. domains: - Put in.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: caja. der. kinahon

kali 1comm. language. 1.1comm. human speech: may refer to any unit of utterance such as a word or sentence; may refer to a particular language or dialect. Hinnatkon di kali dah bale da. They speak a different language in their house. Am-in di kalin amam ya un-unudom. Obey all the words of your father. Binalonay nay kalim te inlot mu yaden dakol day tatagu. He didn’t like the way you told him because you said it loudly and there were many people. Uggek bo udot inila nan kali da. I didn’t even know their language. (sem. domains: - Word.) 1.2comm. (fig) refers to the vocal mechanism and the sounds produced; voice. Mababol di kali na. His voice is bassy. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) 2speak. 2.1to speak; to say. Sim: hapit. 2.1.1trans. to say something with a focus on what is said. Handih 25th di Aplil kinalin Mayor an umali kanu da Apu Paredes ke Apu Datumanong hitu ad Ifugao. On the 25th of April, the Mayor said, it is reported, that Sir Paredes and Sir Datumanong will come here to Ifugao. Hay pinhod kun kalyon ya piliyom di maphod an barkadom. What I want to say is that you should choose good friends. ‑on/‑in‑. Speech verbs. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2.1.2intrans. to talk; to utter words; to communicate ideas and thoughts. An kimmali ka? Did you talk? Ugge mi dingngol di nangikalim hi kalida. We did not hear how you talked in their language. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Nih-up da kanu nadan no- mungkalkali ot itikod na. According to him, those who were talking came near him and he stopped. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2.1.3nom. A nominalization that focuses on the manner of speaking. Hay pungkalim an pabinnugtak. Your manner of speaking is abrupt and angry. puN‑. 2.1.4trans. to scold or warn. Kinalyana nadan imbabalena ta adida mangun-unud ke hiya. He warned his children so that they will not follow him. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Warn.) 2.2trans. to say something by calling to someone. Kaliyam aga din mangen unga. Do call back the boy who is going. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman. This so-called prestige feast hagabi entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 3think. 3.1trans. to use the mind to process or consider information or data; to think. Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Pangalik pe on attiken tagu mu handi immomwa ya atag-e. I thought he was a short man but when he straightened up he was tall. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 3.2 - Think.) der. makali id. kay kidul di kalim id. malumii di kali na id. nidallom an kali infl. pangali

kaput trans. 1to repair things made of rattan; may be generalized to repair other things. [Repairs are usually made with strips of rattan.] Ingkaput da nan napain gampa. They repaired the head-basket with rattan vine. Paputam nan pahiking. Repair the back pack with rattan. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.5.2 - Join, attach.) 2to tie something using rattan strips. Dahdiy adi bumoh-ol an ingkaput ku nan panton di balen di manuk on eyak ume on naubad di kaput na. Who wouldn’t get angry, I tied the door of the chicken house and when I went, it was untied. Kinaputan Mariah uwe nan karton yaden binukatan yu pay. Maria tied the carton with rattan and you still opened it. Pun-ikaput yun am-in hanadan carga te mangali nan talak. Tie all the baggage, the truck is coming. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3C Move something and combine it with or attach it to something else.

kawot trans. 1to hold fast; to grasp. Handih e malting hi Brenda ya ingkawot na ke ha-on ot innang an malting kamin duwa. When Brenda was about to drown, she grasped me and both of us nearly drowned. Pun-ikawot mun hiya yaden punhipag ot ya abun tulang mu. You were holding him while your brother was socking him. Mahakit tun nangikawotanan ha-on dih indani. This part where she grasped me a while ago is painful. i‑/iN‑, puN‑i‑, nangi‑ ‑an. Sim: odon, kapet. (sem. domains: - Hold.) 2to take hold of a handful of something. Kinawot na nan pitok ot ihaad na nah banong. He grasped a handful of mud and placed it on the mud-dike. Kinawot na nan pitok ot ipakpak nan ha-oy. She grasped the mud and threw it at me. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Sim: poka, gam’al. 3to cling to someone or something. Inang-ang na nan tindalu ya pun-ikawot nan inana. When he saw the soldier he was clinging to his mother. puN‑ i‑.

kibit trans. to pinch someone. Immali ot ikibit nan Maria ot bumtik. She came and pinched Maria and ran away. Tipet mungkoga ka, kinibit daka? Why are you crying, did somebody pinch you? Kinibitak ke diye ah. She pinched me. Muntukodak ke he-a ta patikodom yaden pungkibit mu ot ya abu. I was shouting at you to stop her instead you pinched her. Mungkibbitan da. They are pinching each other. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, puN‑, muN‑ ‑an. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: kiting. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.)

kid’ul 1comm. thunder, the sound caused by the sudden expansion of air in the path of an electrical charge (lightning). Dingngol mu nan kidul? Did you hear the thunder? (sem. domains: - Lightning, thunder.) 2intrans. to produce the sound accompanying lightning; to thunder. Kimmayat hi Pedro ya kimmidul ot mag-a. Pedro climbed when it thundered and he fell. Nanginkikidul yaden pun-ilubuk dah apu ya kalyon da boy panio. They were burying my grandmother when all at once it thundered and they said it was a bad omen. Mungkikidul yaden maid di kil-at. It is thundering yet there is no lightning. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2F Meteorological. Amkidul

kil-at 1comm. a natural electrical discharge in the air; lightning. Linhitan di kil-at nan akasya. Lightning burned the acacia tree. Sim: luhit, kimat. (sem. domains: - Lightning, thunder.) 2intrans. to discharge an electrical flash; to lightning. Humgop kayu tuh bale te kumil-at. Come in the house because there will be lightning. Mungkikil-at yaden wada nah payo hi Jose. There are flashes of lightning yet Jose is in the field. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 2F Meteorological.

kudang (sp. var. kulang) 1sta. to be insufficient; inadequate; not enough; lacking. ma‑. Measure quantifier. (sem. domains: - Lack.) 2to be insufficient. 2.1trans. to cause something to be insufficient or inadequate in amount or number. Kudangona nan indat mun igattang nah boga. He thinks the amount you gave him to buy rice is insufficient. Ustu nan ihaad ku mo kinudangan Maria. What I placed is enough but Maria removed some of it (made it insufficient). ‑on/‑in‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Lack.) 2.2intrans. for something to be insufficient with the implication that the insufficiency is due to agentive mishandling. Kumudang tun indat mu. What you gave is not enough. Deke on kumudang di kilon nan gatas an in-alim. Sometimes the milk that you bring is lacking in weight. Mungkudang nan in-aliyun kaiw. Something is missing in the lumber you brought.(count not right) ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 2.3sta. to be insufficient, in amount or number. Makudang di pihuk an immed Manila kinali uggeyak gimmatang hi pinhod ku. I did not have enough money when I went to Manila and that’s why I didn’t buy what I wanted. 3adj. to be immature in reference to legumes. Kudang nan bulhe na yaden pinuga na. His beans are immature yet he harvested them. infl. makudang

kuling₂ 1sta. to have a high-pitched voice; for one’s voice to become high-pitched. Makuling di kalin Winston yaden lalaki. The voice of Winston is high-pitched and yet he is a boy. Deke on kumuling di kalim. Sometimes your voice becomes high pitched. ma‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) 2trans. to sing with a high pitch. [This would be particularly true when a man sings falsetto.] Mungkankanta kayu ya maimatun di boses mu te kulkullingom. You were singing and your voice could be recognized because you were singing in a high pitch. (lit. making voice high-pitched)

kullawing intrans. to swing with hands on a pole or branch; to hang from something. Wada da nan munhona ta kanan di bumaddang da yaden mungkulkullawing da ot ya abu ta mid-um di dam-ot da. There are some naughty ones who say they will help but instead they swing on the poles and add to the load. muN‑/nuN‑ CV(C)‑. 1B Movement with a directional component. (sem. domains: - Move back and forth.)

kulug 1to believe. 1.1trans. to believe in something or someone. Kulugon da nan kinalina yaden makallay-a. They believed in what he told them yet he is a liar. Ditaku ken Ipugaw ya kulugon takun wadaday bibiyo weno pinading. We Ifugaos believe that there are bibiyo spirits or pinading spirits. ‑on/‑in‑ . (sem. domains: - Believe.) 1.2trans. the affix cross-references those who believe; believers; Christians. Gulatna nin ta maid di mundogo nadah mangulug ke Apu Dios ya maid da nin di mumbaki. Maybe if none of the Christians (lit. those who believe in God) would become ill, there would be no more priests of the traditional religion. maN‑. (sem. domains: - Religious person.) 2intrans. the process of becoming true or fulfillment of a predicted event or happening. Kimmulug nan kinalim. What you said became true, (it happened) ‑um‑/‑imm‑. der. kakulugana der. makulug der. pangulug infl. mangulug

kulut trans. to curl hair. Pinhod kun kuluton di buuk yu mu maid nan pungkulut ku. I would like to curl your hair but I do not have my things for curling. Mahlun mungkulut ke dakayu. She is industrious to curl your hair. Duway oras yaden adi makmakullut tun buuk ku. Two hours passed and yet my hair was not curling. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ma‑ CV(C). 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 2.1.5 - Hair.) Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

ladyu 1comm. a radio. Mundonggol ka hi kanta nah ladyu. Listen to songs on the radio. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) 2intrans. to listen to the radio. Munladyu yaden mumbalbal. She was listening to the radio while she was doing the laundry. muN‑/nuN‑. 3intrans. to air on the radio. i‑/iN‑. Language Of Borrowing: English: radio. der. iladyu

lah-o trans. to fail to do something, often related to something that had been promised. Adim anhan ilah-o an e manibon ina. Please do not fail to go and visit my mother. Kananay umali yaden inlah-o na bo. He said he would come but he failed again. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: - Below standard, - Hinder.)

lattip intrans. to be fitted exactly one on top of the other, in such a way that one would think it is only one instead of two, or less than the actual number. Nunlattip da tuwali ot kanak pe on ohan pihu ya abu yaden duwa. They were fitted together so that I thought there was only one peso whereas there were two. Nunlalattip da! They were folded one over the other so tightly. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 7.5 - Arrange.)

lugu 1comm. shoots of the squash plant. Ikamom nan lugu nah patani. Mix the squash-shoots with the lima beans. (sem. domains: - Food from vegetables.) 2trans. to gather squash shoots. Munlugu dah ihda taku hi hilong. They are gathering squash-shoots for our viand tonight. An damanan eyak lumugu nah intanom mu? Could I go and gather the squash-shoots of your plant? Linugu da nan intanom Pablo yaden ugge ni-an bimmunga. They gathered the squash-shoots that Pablo planted yet it had not yet borne fruit. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ‑on/‑in‑.

luta 1land. 1.1comm. the surface layer of the earth which supports plant life; soil; ground. Haa-adam hi luta nan napain banga. Place soil inside the broken pot. Adida ni-an iha-ad hi luta yaden pumaytuk nan himmagabi nah hagabi ta gumpa. Before they place the bench on the ground, the man who is performing the ceremony jumps up on it and makes a speech. (sem. domains: - Soil, dirt.) 1.2comm. any portion of the surface of the earth which belongs to a person; land property. Ambilog di lutam. Your land is wide. (sem. domains: 1.2.1 - Land.) 2earth. Sim: lubung. 2.1comm. the planet as the place where people live; earth. Tun lutan niha-adan takun tatagu ya ahin tu mama-id hantuh aliyan Apu Jesus Kristo. This earth where we are living will be nothing when the Lord Jesus Christ comes. (sem. domains: 1 - Universe, creation, 1.2 - World.) 2.2prop. the world where certain classes of spirits live, along with people, in contrast to the worlds where other gods and spirits live; Earthworld. Sim: lagud. (sem. domains: 1.2 - World.) der. ilutta

ma-al-algo (der. of algo) sta. 1the time when the sun is highest in the sky; noontime. Etaku mangan te ma-al-algo. Lets go eat because it’s noontime. ma‑, CVC‑. (sem. domains: - Time of the day.) 2refers to the time when the sun has moved past its peak; past noontime. Na-al-algo mo yaden maid pay an umali. It’s past noon and yet, he hasn’t come. na‑ CVC‑.

maawatan (infl. of awat) pass. to understand the meaning of something. Kakalikali ka yaden adik maawatan. You keep on talking and yet I don’t understand. ma‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.2.4 - Understand.)

madne advpred. refers to an indefinite future time related to a usual time; in context it can mean early or later, context will disambiguate. Madney algo yaden umanamut kayu. It is early in the day and yet you are going home. Madney pay ta ahida umali. It will be a long time before they come. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.3 - Indefinite time.)

man-u 1adjunct. to be fortunate; for something to be good for someone. Man-un ditaku te mangan takuh mumpitlu hin-algo yaden dakol day agun maid kanon da. Good for us because we can eat three times a day when there are many who have no food at all. Kanak hi nomnom kuy “Makamman-un dida te kay nakalakka. I said to myself, “It’s really good for them because it seems easy.” Evaluative. (sem. domains: 4.4.1 - Prosperity.) 2advpred. something is possible, but is not certain; modifies the main clause; implies that it would be a good thing. Man-u te deket nangabak di tagu nah tugal ya mun-an-anla. It might be that when one wins in gambling he is happy. Modality. (sem. domains: - Possible.) comp. man-uke comp. man-upo

mulmul trans. to suck something, e.g. candy. Mulmulam tun buwana. Just suck this seed. Mummulmul hi klindi yaden adi umidat. He is sucking on a candy yet he does not give any. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. 5C Goal-oriented sites. Sim: luplup, akmul. (sem. domains: 5.2.2 - Eat.)

muN- TACR. 1this prefix encodes non-past tense, durative time aspect; it cross-references the subject and is the default affix for Class 1 verbal roots. <Morphophonology: The velar consonant in coda position assimilates to the point of articulation of the first consonant in the root.> Mungngahngahak yaden mungkaliyak hi bale mi. I gasped for breath and yet I shouted at our house. Itikod mun muntugal an ap-apuk. Stop gambling, grandson. An mun-in-inop ka? Inid-onah nunhina-ob an pukol ku. “Are you dreaming?” She held me by my shoulders. 2non-past tense, signals a durative aspect activity rather than a punctiliar action when co-occuring with a transitive verbal root, cross-references subject. Dakol kami an naamung nah plaza an munhood kamih lugan. Many of us gathered at the plaza to wait for a ride. Ta mundadaan dah ibaddang dan hiya. So that they will prepare whatever they will give to help. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. 3when the prefix co-occurs with the reduplicant CV(C)-, it encodes non-past tense, durative-continuative aspect and cross-references the subject. Deket palhu di pangiha-angam, mahapul an uggan mu ikiwa ta mun-iingngoy lutu na. If a skillet is used, it is necessary to stir the rice from time to time so that it will be cooked evenly. Mumpaypaytuk ya mungkuli. She was jumping up and down and screaming. 4when this affix co-occurs with Class 6 verb roots, it changes statives to durative processes; it encodes non-past tense and cross-references the subject. Mihmihdi nah munhihilong ya nah kakaiw an dakol di hapang nan mahdol di tubuna. It stays in dark places (becoming dark) or in trees with thick, leafy branches. Deket dakol di binokbok na ya mapul-ukan an mumpait. When too much binokbok-yeast is used, the wine will become bitter. 5the prefix derives verbs from nouns; it encodes non-past tense and cross-references the subject. Ya pinhod ot Mayor ya dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo. What the Mayor wanted was that many women would wear the Ifugao skirt. Mumboga da ya mungkail da. They prepare rice and make wine. Adina itikod an mumbaki te wadanwaday takut na an kumpulmin tiempu ya mate. He does not stop doing the rituals because his fear is that he might die at anytime. 6the prefix encodes non-past tense, reflexive and cross-references both the subject and object expressed in a single noun phrase. Mahapul an mamitlu kan mun-amo ohan algo. You have to take a bath three times a day (bathe yourself). Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid themselves outside of the camp.

munggitang (der. of gitang) intrans. to have pain in the back at the waist area, i.e. upper lumbar region. Munggitang ka yaden unga ka. You are experiencing back pain yet you are still young. muN‑.

mungkahilong (der. of hilong) proc. refers to the time of day when it is becoming dark; twilight. Mungkahilong yaden ume da. It is becoming night and yet they are going. Deket mungkahilong on madanagan hi inam ke he-a. When it is becoming dark, your mother worries about you. (sem. domains: - Time of the day.)

munlukut (der. of lukut) intrans. to smoke a cigarette. Munlukut yaden munyaki. He is smoking despite having tuberculosis. muN‑/nuN‑.

ngahngah intrans. to breathe rapidly; to gasp for breath resulting from running or brisk walking; gasping or panting because one is tired or having difficulty in breathing. Mungngahngahak yaden mungkaliyak hi bale mi. I shouted as I gasped for breath. Maka-atung kinali mungngahngah nan ahu. It is very hot, that is why the dog is panting. muN‑/nuN‑. Class 2E Physiological functions. (sem. domains: 2.2.1 - Breathe, breath.)

obot advpred. to be no different from someone or something when compared; to be the same in behavior. Kumogakoga nan golang yaden obotna bo nah ong-ongal an ibana. The baby is always crying and the older one was no different. (was also always crying) Comparative. Sim: umat, paddung, ingngo. (sem. domains: - Compare.)

ot ya abu (comp. of abu) 1adv. expresses a strong quantitative concept, totally, absolutely, wholly. Kanan di e udman nan pihu yaden e talakon ot ya abu. One would wish to increase his money (by gambling) but instead he loses all of it. Limiting and maximizing. 2adjunct. expresses an intensity of feeling or attitude, particularly with either commands or requests; in context, there is usually a rejected alternative of an activity or action involved; absolutely. Idatan yu ot ya abu didah kanon da ya inumon da. You must absolutely give them what they will eat and drink. Hay itugun kun he-a ya tumungo ka ot ya abu. As for my advice to you, it is absolutely take a rest day. Wada da nan munhona ta kanan di bumaddang da yaden mungkulkullawing da ot ya aabu ta mid-um di dam-ot da. There are those naughty ones who instead of helping carry the load, hold on to the pole and swing from one side to the other, thereby absolutely adding to the load. Attitudinal. 3adv. expresses the idea of a singular purpose. Umali ka ot ya abut baddanganak. Come for the singular purpose of helping me./Come just to help me. (sem. domains: 9.2.2 - Adverbs.)

otong 1mature. 1.1sta. for rice to be mature, ready for harvest. Nat-ong nan page. The rice-grains are mature. Nat-ong moy page yu. Your rice is ready for harvest. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objectss. (sem. domains: 1.5.6 - Growth of plants.) 1.2n. refers to a particular stage of growth. Deket adi maani ya luma-uy otong na. If it is not harvested, then it will be overripe. 2sta. (fig) to be a mature person Nat-ongan ka mo yaden kapyanan adika dumngol. You are already old, yet you do not heed advice. na‑ ‑an.

paktiw 1comm. pepper, small red and green variety. Umalak ka nah paktiw hidin nah alad. Get some pepper near the fence. Syn: hili. (sem. domains: - Cooking ingredients.) 2trans. to place or use pepper on food. Paktiwam nan ihda mu tibom ta adi makikkan nadanu-unga. Place pepper on the food but see to it that the children will not eat from it. Mumpaktiw damdama yaden golgollang. He uses hot pepper also, yet he is still a child. Ipaktiw da nan ihda an dotag. They will dip the meat in hot pepper. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑. id. kay napaktiwan di tipam

para₂ 1adjunct. this word is said when riding a vehicle upon reaching a destination. Para! Hitu kami mo. Stop! We’ll get down here. Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.) 2v. to stop a vehicle to ride or alight. Mumpara nan nunlugan yaden ugge dingngol nan munmaneho. The passenger told the driver to stop but he did not hear. Mumpara kami handi nala-u kayu mu ugge yu intikod. We were asking you to stop when you passed by but you didn’t stop. Paraon yu nan tolak an mangali. Stop the vehicle that is coming. Paraom hin mipottok takuh bale. Stop the vehicle when we are directly in front of our house. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑on/‑in‑.

pawwid trans. to place the hands behind the back. Pawwidom nan taklenat taliyak. Hold his hands at his back so that I may tie them. Pinawwid nay taklena yaden punduntuk da. He placed his hands behind his back yet they kept punching him. ‑on/‑in. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: - Actions of the hand.)

paytuk 1intrans. to move, by jumping up and down. Adida ni-an iha-ad hi luta yaden pumaytuk nan himmagabi nah hagabi ta gumpa. Before they place the bench on the ground, the man who is performing the ceremony jumps up on it and makes a speech. Mumpaypaytuk ya mungkuli te hidiyey pinghanan ena nakidilagan hi allama. She jumped up and down and screamed because it was the first time she went to catch crabs with a torch. Kanan Juliey, “Dakol di in-innat mi. Nungkanta kami ya pimmaytuk kami. She said, “We did many things. We sang and we jumped.” ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑ CVC. 2B Movement, change of position. Sim: labtuk, yapa; Sim: dop-a, labtuk, yapa. (sem. domains: - Jump.) 2trans. to jump over something with the object being jumped over in view. Paytukom din alad hin kayam. Jump over the fence if you can. ‑on/‑in‑.

pinu 1trans. to sift flour, sand, soil; to refine. Pinuwom nan alina ta maphod di ha-ang na. Sift the flour so that the cooking will be good. Puminu kah duwan basun alina. Sift two cups of flour. Mumpinu hi Nely hi alina yaden mana-ang. Nely is sifting flour and at the same time cooking. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: - Separate, scatter.) 2pass. to become fine-grained; to be refined. Puminu nan alina in yakayakom. The flour will become finer if you sift it. Napinu nan ahin an igattang da. The salt they sell is fine-grained. Nakappinu nan ahin an ek ginatang. The salt I bought is very fine. ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

pitu 1adj. seven. Pitu kamin hintutulang. We are seven brothers and sisters. Pituy toona yaden makangngun-unud ya makabbaddang. He was only seven years old, yet he was obedient and helpful. Number quantifier. 2adj. seventh. Ha-oy di mikapitu. I’m the seventh. mika‑. 3adj. seven times. Naminpitu kan immali. You came seven times. Mamitun pihuy bayad di oha hantudah nungkikbin manuk. Those cooped chickens are worth seven pesos each. maN‑. namin‑. 4adj. seven each. Hinpipituy imbabale mi. We have seven children each. Hinpipituy liblu mi ot ahi kami nuntikod. We each reached seventh grade before we quit. hiN‑ CV‑. 5intrans. to divide into seven parts. Pumpituwom nan tupaya. Divide the papaya into seven pieces. puN‑ ‑on. comp. himpulut pitu der. himpipitu

pubo adjunct. an expression of politeness, used in requests; please. “Ume-mee kanna pubo,” kalyon Kotyang yaden pungkaanay wano na. “Go on, move out there” said Toad while he removed his loin cloth. (quote from Ifugao folktale) Umidat ka pubo hi kindi. Please, give me also some candy. Maid puboy indat dan hiya. They did not give him any. Interpersonal. (sem. domains: 3.3.2 - Request.) boppubo

pukhu trans. to release something that is caught on something, e.g. clothing from a nail. Pukhuwom din nihableh hubit. Release that which is caught in the thorns. Pukhuwom ya- tun nihab-ut an iskirt ku. Please unfasten my hooked skirt. Pun-id-on ku yaden pumpukhu da nan taklek ot mag-ahak mo. I was holding fast but they were loosening my hands so I fell. Ippitom nan attake ta adi mapukhu. Tighten your head beads so that they will not fall (lit. be released). ‑on/‑in‑, puN‑, ma‑/na‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: - Set free.)

pukol 1comm. shoulder. Nahpung di pukol na. His shoulder is sprained. An mun-in-inop ka? Inid-onah nunhina-ob an pukol ku. “Are you dreaming?” She held me by my shoulders. (sem. domains: 2.1.2 - Torso.) 2sta. to have broad shoulders. Babai ka yaden namukol ka. You are a woman yet you have broad shoulders. maN‑. id. madam-ot hi pukol

pun-i- distr. this prefix encodes distributive or directional components and cross-references the direct object, Class 3 verbal root; non-past tense. <The pun- form has the distributive or directional conponents, while the i- cross references the direct object. > Takon di hilot ya pun-ialo da ten nap-uy dayakkot. When the rice is gone, some naughty ones throw dung at each other. Pun-igatang nah mainum ta in-inummon da nah ibbana. He buys drinks for his friends. Pun-ihagmuk nan iniggid mu di binokbok yaden pun-ikiwan di winawwan mu. As you sprinkle the yeast over the rice with your left hand, you keep stirring with your right. Pun-ikayat nah tawang da. He is climbing through their window. Pun-ibtik nay gamgam. He is running away with something valuable. Sim: impuN--, puN- -on. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

tabin trans. to take something with one in whatever direction one is going. Ahim itabin nan uppig mun napnuh tabaku. Take your rattan purse filled with tobacco. Itanabtabin mu tun hakbat mu yaden ma-ma-id di mihudu. You always take your backpack but it’s always empty. i‑/iN‑. Sim: kawin, takin. (sem. domains: 7.3.3 - Take somewhere.)

tai 1comm. the excrement of man or animal; feces. Inwahit nan golang di tai na. The baby scattered his feces. Syn: galiho. (sem. domains: 2.2 - Body functions.) 2defecate. 2.1intrans. to excrete waste material from intestines; to defecate. Tumai nan unga te pun-ununay pantalon. The child will defecate because he is pulling down his pants. Muntatai nan nuwang yaden mundallanan. The carabao is defecating while walking. ‑um‑/‑imm‑ . 2E Physiological functions. (sem. domains: 2.2 - Body functions.) 2.2trans. to defecate on someone or something. Nipottok nan banbanaggo ke Pedlo ot ta-iyana. The lizard was directly over Pedlo and it defecated on him ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. der. taim

talak₁ 1trans. to lose something. Adim talakon nan pihhum. Don’t lose your money. Kanan di e udman nan pihu yaden e talakon ot ya abu. One would wish to increase his money (by gambling) but instead he only loses it. Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. Sim: buna. (sem. domains: 7.6.3 - Lose, misplace.) 2pass. to be lost. Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Unudon yu nan gulding ta adi matalak. Follow the goat so that it will not be lost. ma‑/na‑. infl. matalak

talala 1intrans. to say something in order to make trouble; to say things that are intended to interrupt or otherwise make trouble. Importanten abu tun ihummangan mi yaden dehna ka damdamdaman tumalala. We are talking about an important matter and yet there you are disturbing us. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Speech Verbs - Purpose is to evoke a response. (sem. domains: 4.4.2 - Trouble.) 2sta. to believe everything someone says. Natalala nah kinali dan hiya. She believed everything they said to her. ma‑/na‑.

talan-u intrans. to crow; the cry of a rooster. [Old folks say that the ido-snake also crows.] Muntatalan-u day poltan. The roosters are crowing. Adi tumalan-u nan poltan ku. My rooster can’t crow. Makatallan-u udot tun poltan ku yaden iittay. My rooster crows well although it is still small. Muntatalan-u ke on imme kamih payo. At dawn (lit. when the rooster crows) we go to the fields. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑, maka‑. 1D Sounds. (sem. domains: - Sound.) id. muntatalan-u

tama sta. to be ignorant of facts; to lack knowledge. Takon tuwaliy inilam yaden kahintamaom. Even if you know, you pretend to be ignorant. Matama ka an manugun hi u-ungad uwani. You are ignorant when it comes to advising young people today. ma‑, kahin‑ ‑on. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. Sim: hamma. (sem. domains: - Known, unknown.)

tamam advpred. you reap what you sow; you get what you deserve; an expression of spite. [When someone is hurt or troubled, and this word is used, that person will feel angry and have hurt feelings.] Tamam te imbagak an adika kumayat yaden ipilit mu. There, now you know (lit. you’ve tasted) because I told you not to climb and yet you climbed and fell. Tamam ta hinuplit daka. That is what you deserve, they whipped you. general: This word may be a shortened form of tamtam ‘to taste’, and has the extended meaning expressed in the definition. Evaluative. Sim: tela. (sem. domains: - Blame.)

tibi₁ 1comm. tuberculosis. Waday tibi nan kinali athidy uk-uk na. He has tuberculosis, that is why his cough is like that. Sim: ngiyo, yaki. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick, 2.5.2 - Disease.) 2intrans. to be sick with tuberculosis. Muntibi yaden taganah lukut. He is sick with tuberculosis yet he keeps on smoking. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: English: T.B. tuberculosis.

toon comm. refers to a time period of a year. Kaatnay toon mu? How old are you? (lit. how many years) Hintoon di ug-uggek nangang-angan ke he-a. I have not seen you for a year Pituy toona yaden makangngun-unud ya makabbaddang. He was only seven years old, yet he was obedient and helpful. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.) comp. hintoon der. tinoon infl. katootoon n. ph. ad uwanin toon n. ph. handih toon n. ph. hantuh ohan toon ph. v. mumpidwah ohan toon ph. v. mumpip-at hi hintoon

topong 1comm. a measure of arm’s length, about a meter long; from tip of fingers to opposite shoulder. [The length of the palayon-wood with tuknul in the hingngot ritual is hintopong.] Hintopong di kadukken nan itungu. The length of the firewood is about a meter. hiN‑. (sem. domains: 8.2.8 - Measure.) 2trans. to measure something in general. Topngom di iha-ang mu yaden ugge inila on waday himmawwang hi bisita taku. You always measure what you cook and yet we don’t know when we might have unexpected visitors. Itpong mu nan bilau. Use the stick to measure it. Adi matpong kanuy naminhod nan ha-oy. He says his love for me is beyond measure. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, ma‑.

tugun 1comm. advice; instruction. Dakol di tugun din hi aman ha-oy. My late father had a lot of advice. Toan ten makulug, mu deket makulug, ikabing mu anhan tun tugun ku. Whether or not this is true, I don’t know, but if it is, then, heed my advice. (sem. domains: - Advise.) 2to advise. 2.1trans. to give specific advice. Intugun inada an mun-ule dah dalan ya mundongol dah iskul ta waday inilaon da. Their mother instructed them to be careful on the way and to listen in class so they would learn something. i‑/iN‑. 2.2trans. to advise a particular person. Tugunon yu nan imbabale yu ta adida mun-ay-ayyam nah kalata. Advise your children not to play in the streets. ‑on/‑in‑. 4G Tactile - Touch contact. 2.3comm. refers to the activity of giving advice. Adida maphod di iin-inan tumugun te naduti da. It isn’t fitting for old women to advise because they just keep repeating the same thing. Makannugun ka udot yaden mummumutog ka. So, you are advising and yet are inexperienced. ‑um/‑imm‑‑, makaC‑.

tultug sta. the center of the head that is bald; to have a bald crown of the head. Natultugan ka yaden unga ka. The center of your head is bald yet you are still young. na‑ ‑an. 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: 2.1.1 - Head.)

tulu 1adj. the cardinal number three. Tulu di inayana. He has three wives. Hay kadinawwinah nah ob-ob ad Patukan ya umeh tuluy kilometro. The distance from the spring in Patukan was about three kilometers Number quantifier. (sem. domains: - Cardinal numbers.) 2intrans. third cock’s crow; three times. Inggibok ku dih pimmitlu. I woke up when the cock crowed three times. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3adj. three each. Hintutlu kayun umbun. You sit by threes. hiN‑. 4trans. to divide into three. Puntuluwom an piangon nan tupaya te tulu kami. Cut the papaya in thirds because there are three of us. puN‑ ‑on. 5sta. to be worth three pesos. Matulun pihu tun ohan tupaya. This papaya is worth three pesos. ma‑. 6trans. to do something three times. Mamitluwak an uminum hi danum hi hin-algo. I drink water three times a day. Ganain di ipitluk an kumali on ahim dingngol. I have to say something three times before you listen. mami‑, ipi‑. 7adj. thirty. Tulumpuluy toon ku yaden maid pay di inayak. I am thirty years old and still single. 8quan. few. Dimmatong dah maal-algo ot ipayu dan e mampap mu tultulluy dimpap da. They arrived at noon and went directly to the river, but they only caught a few. comp. himpulut tulu comp. tulumpulu der. hintutlu der. katlu der. katlu der. mamitlu der. pitlu der. pungkatluwon

tuppa (sp. var. tupa) 1comm. the fluid excreted by the salivary glands; saliva; spit. (sem. domains: 2.2.3 - Spit, saliva.) 2to spit. 2.1trans. to spit something on someone or something. Adi kayu mun-ay-ayyam hina te tuppaan dakayu nadah mummomad tap-o. Do not play there because the the betelnut chewers above will spit on you. Ituppam nah lata. Spit in the can. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. 2.2intrans. to spit, implies a continuing act. Dakol day tatagu yaden muntuppa ka. There are many people around and yet you are spitting. muN‑/nuN‑. 2.3intrans. the act of spitting. Intibok ya maid di tagu ot tumuppaak ya nala-u ka. I looked to see and there was no one so I spat and you passed by. Handih himbatangan dih kalimana ya ustun eyak timmupan dih kanal It was last Friday afternoon when I went out to spit in the canal. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

udum₁ trans. 1to add condiments or other food to what is being cooked. Ta mamangulun ipulitu ta deket nage-geengngan hi ittay ne inid-um di amput ya danggu And fry first until it is brown and add garlic and onions. Ne inid-um di sagpaw an tinapa weno sardinas. Then, add tinapa or sardines. i‑/ini‑. 3C Move something and combine it with or attach it with something else. 2to increase; to add to; to include. <Morphology: The maki- prefix expresses a participatory activity; the reduplication expresses the habitual aspect> Tibom bot adika makidkid-um hi fraternities te maid di hilbin dadiye.. See to it also that you don’t join any fraternity groups because they are useless. Kanan di e udman nan pihu yaden e talakon otyaabu. One would wish to increase his money (by gambling) but instead he loses it. Maid di ena id-um hi kanomnoman ya mumbalin tan kay hiyyahiyya. Nothing is added to your wisdom and we may become proud and boastful. i/iN, an/in‑ ‑an, maki CV(C). (sem. domains: - Increase.) der. hin-uddum infl. mid-uman

ukit trans. 1to remove something stuck between two objects by the use of a thin instrument. Ukitom nadan kitob nah dingding. Remove the bedbugs from the spaces between the wall. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: - Take something out of something.) 2to remove the meat of shellfish. Ukitom nan battikul ta ihdan tun unga. Remove the meat of the shellfish for the child to eat. ‑on/‑in‑. Sim: duk-it. 3to insert something between two things. Iukit mu tun uwa nah dingding. Stick the knife between the walling. Miuukit kah na pikdol yaden nahkit. You are trying to contain yourself in that corner and yet it’s very narrow. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. 3A Move and position object at site.

unud 1trans. to follow someone or something. Unudon yu nan gulding ta adi matalak. Follow the goat so that it will not be lost. Inunud kun ya immed Ambabag. I followed him and he went to Ambabag. ‑on/‑in‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: - Follow.) 2trans. to follow the advice of someone; to obey. Unudom di kalyon inam. Follow what your mother says. Adika mangun-unud. You do not obey. Pituy toona yaden makangngun-unud ya makabbaddang. He was only seven years old, yet he was very obedient and helpful. ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑/naN‑. (sem. domains: - Obey.) 3intrans. to be in agreement; to cooperate; to unite. Mun-uunnudan da nadan tatagu kediyen boble. The people in that village are united. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 4.1.5 - Unity.) 4intrans. to imitate; to copy. Iun-unud mu nah inat ku. Imitate what I did. i‑/iN‑ CVC‑. infl. mangun-unud infl. maunud

uppa comm. hen. Oh-ohhay uppa yaden lima day poltan. There is only one hen, yet there are five roosters. (sem. domains: 1.6.7 - Male and female animals, - Bird.)

utut₂ 1comm. the normal sound of breaking wind; fart. (sem. domains: 2.2 - Body functions, - Sound.) 2intrans. to expel intestinal gas; to break air. Umtut ka ke ya ume kad dola. If you break air, go outside. Mun-uutut yaden taganah kakan. He is farting while he is eating. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 2E Body/Physiological functions. 3trans. to expel gas with a site-object cross-referenced by the affix. Ume-ele kah na te tumaddog ke man ya ututan daka. Move away from there because if he stands he will fart on you. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

wangawang trans. to spread news; to disclose a secret; to declare to the public. Inwangawang da an waday ahawam hitu. They spread the news that you have a wife here. Niwangawang an nate ka yaden dehtu ka an makattagu. The news spread that you were dead and yet, here you are, very much alive. i‑/iN‑, ni‑/mi‑. Speech Verbs - General. (sem. domains: - Report.)