Tuwali Ifugao - English



numpaN- trans. this prefix encodes a distributive modality; when attached to a transitive verb, the action expressed in the verb is distributed to multiple objects undergoing the action; past tense. Ne pun-ala da damdamay limmun nadan buhul dan numpangalah limmu da handi. (Ezekiel 39:10b) Then they will also get the property of their enemies who got their property long ago. Sim: mumpaN-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)
numpangi- trans. this prefix encodes a distributive modality; when attached to a Class 3 transitive verb, the action expressed in the verb is distributed to multiple objects undergoing the action; past tense. Ot umitud-ak dah mumpangie ke dadiyen tudok hi kabobboble. And they sent them to take those letters to all the villages. Sim: mumpangi-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)
numpi- adj > advpred. this prefix is affixed to cardinal numbers to derive an adverbial predicate that means to do the action or activity expressed in the main verb the number of times encoded in the cardinal number; past tense; multiplier. Numpitluy nundasalak ke Apu takut kaanonah tuwen ligat ku...(2 Corinth 12:8) Three times I prayed to our Lord to remove my hardship... (sem. domains: - Derivational affixes, - Number of times.)
numpinghan (der. of oha, numpi-) advpred. refers to an event or action that occurred only one time; once. Kon numpinghan ya abuy nanib-anan hiya? Did she see him only once? numping‑ ‑an. Mathematical. (sem. domains: - Number of times.)
numpuN- TACR. cross references subject, distributive, i.e. the plural subjects are all involved in the action, activity expressed by the verb; past tense. Wadaday i-itay tatagun numpumbaleh di. There were small people living in the houses there. Ahi mamtik di tataguh mumuyung hi pangngolan dah ngalan di titindalun numpuntakkeh kakabayu ya nadan numpumpana. (Jeremiah 4:29a) People ran to the forests when they heard the noise of the soldiers riding horses and those who were spearing. Sim: mumpuN-.
nuN- TACR. 1this prefix encodes past tense and durative time aspect; it cross references the subject and is the default affix for Class 1 verbal roots. <Morphophonology: The velar consonant in coda position assimilates to the point of articulation of the first consonant in the root.> Nip-ot bo te nundogo ot mate. To top it all off, he fell sick and died. Om, te maid di hilhilbi hin ugge ta nun-adal ya maid di ngunu. Yes, because one is as good for nothing without education (lit. have not learned) and without a job. 2past tense, signals a durative aspect activity rather than a punctiliar action when co-occurring with a transitive verbal root, cross references subject. Nuntudokak ke hiya nimpe. 3when the prefix co-occurs with the reduplicant CV(C)-, it encodes past tense, durative-continuative aspect and cross references the subject. 4when this affix co-occurs with Class 6 verb roots, it changes statives to durative processes; it encodes past tense and cross references the subject. 5the prefix derives verbs from nouns; it encodes past tense and cross- references the subject. Man-ut nun-iskul mu ingganah grade four ya abu. He took formal education to grade four only Nun-ampuyo kamin am-in an binabai. All of us women wore the Ifugao skirt. 6the prefix encodes past tense, reflexive and cross references both the subject and object expressed in a single noun phrase. Indani ya naatu da nin nundopap. After a while maybe they were tired of grappling with each other.
nunbinnongwa (der. of bongwa) intrans. refers to the two ends of something that is whole, but may be thought of as being in halves; derived from the root meaning to be cut in half. Deket mo ta nakaggibu ya matibo nan duwan kapkapyan di ulun di nuwang nah numbinnongwa. When it (the bench) is really finished, it looks like a misshapen animal with two carabao heads, one on each end.
nundotal (der. of dotal) nom. an area of land that is very flat and level, usually located among mountains. (sem. domains: - Plain, plateau.)
nunhituwan (der. of hitu) nom. home; abode. Liniyan yuy nunhituwan yu. Clean your homes. (sem. domains: 5.9 - Live, stay.)
nunhu-upan (der. of hu-up) nom. to be connected as a knot or joint. Gogodom nah nunhu-upana. Sever it at the connecting joint.
nuN- -an₂ DEV. this circumfix is a clausal nominalizing affix; past tense. Idutidutinay numbaddanganan ha-on She is always repeating stories about how she helped me.
nuN- -an₁ 1TACR. this circumfix cross-references a time or place noun phrase. Handih nun-ap-apuwan di Ippangyol hitud Pilipinas ya waday immalid Kiangan. During the Spanish rule in the Philippines, some of them to Kiangan. Nakaluggit nan eyu nungkekeyan. The place you went swimming is very dirty. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2TACR. this circumfix encodes the concept of distributing an action or activity over time, space, or participants; non-past tense; cross-references agent-subject. Nuntotobbalan dah diyen aton da ot gutudon day algo. They agreed to do that and set a date. 3nom. nominalizes a non-noun form. Indani udot ya wada on tagun nanibon hiya ot baddanganan ianamut hi nunhituwan mid Longnga. Fortunately, a man was passing by and saw him and brought him to our house in Longnga.
nuN- -inn- rec. this circumfix encodes a reciprocal action or activity; past tense; cross-references subjects. Deket mo ta nakaggibu ya matibo nan duwan kapkapyan di ulun di nuwang nah numbinnongwa. When it (the bench) is really finished, it looks like a misshapen animal with two carabao heads, one on each end. Numbinnalbal dah bulwati. They washed each other’s clothes. Nunkinnaan da hi apatut. They removed each others’ shoe. Sim: muN- -inn-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)
nuN- -on this circumfix encodes the notion that there are plural agent-subjects, each one performing the action expressed in the verb, and it cross-references the object referents; past tense. Danaen liman patul ya nun-aaddumon day tindalu da nah Nundotal an Siddim an nih-up nah Naten Baybay. (Genesis 14:3) Those five kings, they joined together their soldiers at the Siddim Valley which is by the Dead Sea. Sim: muN- -on. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)
nun-aapu nom. refers to the relation that exists between the parents of spouses; it is considered a relationship of mutual support. [The responsibilities of such a relationship includes the mutual support of each other’s clans in disputes and ceremonial occasions.] (sem. domains: - Related by marriage.)
nun-addum (infl. of addum) v. to live together as the final stage of the traditional betrothal-marriage ceremonies. Nun-addum da mo da Bugan ke Wigan. Bugan and Wigan are now living together. muN/nuN . (sem. domains: 2.6.1 - Marriage.)
nun-i- TACR. this prefix combination encodes distributive action over multiple objects that are cross-referenced; it also encodes past tense. <The nun- form encodes the distributive component, and the i- cross-references the object.> Nun-idadaan day ootak da ya papahul da. They prepared their bolos and their spears. Nun-iboten Maria nan hinawwal min pintor. Maria placed the extra paint in bottles (lit.bottled) the paint we saved. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)
nunlinikkod (infl. of likkod) intrans. encircles something in all directions; surrounds something. Nungkampu dadiyen tindaluh nunlinikkod kediyen boble. Those soldiers camped, surrounding that village.
nunmahikon (der. of mahikon) intrans. refers to the time of boyhood. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.)
nunna-ud (infl. of na-ud) adjunct. expressess certainty on the part of the speaker in regard to an action or event. Hanan tagun ipaanhanan mangat hi pinhod APU DIOS ya nunna-ud an ipaptok APU DIOS hiya ya nan pamilyana. (Proverbs 14:16) As for the person who priortizes doing what pleases the LORD, it is certain that the LORD will care for him and his family. Ta hay mamangulun umalih nomnom na ya nunna-ud an mate. So the first thing that comes to his mind is he is sure die. Attitudinal.
nunnanong (infl. of nanong) intrans. for something to remain over a period of time; to continue. Mu da Silas ke Timothy ya nunnanong dad Berea. (Acts 17:14b) But as for Silas and Timothy, they remained in Berea. (sem. domains: 8.4.7 - Continue, persevere.)
nungay adjunct. refers to a tentative assumption or hypothesis; suppose; may also be used to make a suggestion. Nungay ta athitu. Suppose it’s like this. Attitudinal. Sim: deke pe nin ta. (sem. domains: - Think so.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.
nunggodway puhuk ke didan duwa (id. of puhu) an idiom referring to someone who loves two people and can’t decide which one to choose (lit. my heart is divided between those two).
nungka- proc. this prefix encodes the distribution of a process or state over a number of objects; completive aspect. <This prefix generally co-occurs with process-state verbal roots or with passive forms of active verbs.> Nungkakaten mumbaga ya maid di innunan mumbaki ta iappitana dida. Someone who is dead might ask for something (be in need), then, he has no way of offering to them. Naminghan ya immanamut hi ohan biggatna ya nungkabibik-iy bulwatina. One morning he came home with his clothes torn in several places. Ya nada ke bon kakaiw an sycamore an nungkalngo ya hannotan takuh sedar an kapkaphodan an kaiw. And also as for those sycamore trees that were felled, we will replace them with sedar which is the best tree. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)
nungka- -an trans > proc. this circumfix refers to a process that affects a site-object; completive aspect. Nungkaladladan di aadol na ya linumbag di huhukina. He had bruises/abrasions all over his body and his feet were swollen. Pinlo day nungkaaladan an boble...(Nehemiah 9:25a) They captured fenced cities... Sim: mungka- -an. (sem. domains: - Derivational affixes.)