Search results for "Verb affixes"

ka-₂ (sp. var. kaC-) asp. this prefix encodes the time aspect of an action, activity or event as being completed in the immediate past; just completed. <Morphology: The form ends in a glottal stop indicated by a hyphen ka-; it should be noted that it is a prefix.> Istolyaon dan handi kanu ka-gibbun di gubat ya namahig di banig. They say that after the second world war ended there were many incidences of ghost appearances. Ka-iali na nan liblu. He just brought the book. Ka-datong da. They just arrived. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

ka-₃ TACR. this prefix encodes a neutral or present tense that co-occurs when the CV(C)CV reduplicant highlights a continuous activity. Kapalapalang nah dulung. He keeps on cutting the floor. Kakalikali ka yaden adik maawatan. You keep on talking yet I cannot understand. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

kaCV- mod. to have a tendency toward certain behavior or have the characteristic encoded in the root. <The prefix ka- requires the cooccurence of the CV- reduplication to encode the ‘tendency’ modal concept. > Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. Kapupuhik nan basu. The cup is breakable. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

kahi- mod. this prefix encodes a participatory concept with a neutral or present tense. Kahitatappo day naten dolog. Dead fish were floating everywhere on the surface (on the top). Kal-inadi ya kahibubutik nadan babuy nah dopla ot pun-iyapa da nah baybay ot malting da. (Luke 8:33b) Immediately, the pigs joined together in running to the cliff and they jumped into the lake and drowned. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

kahiN- -on mod. this modal circumfix adds the concept of pretense to a verb. Kahinhuyhuyopona pangalinat ha-oy di manaang. He pretended to be sleeping, hoping that I’ll be the one to cook. Deke bo udot ya kahinlullokon da ot inila takun adida unudon intugun taku. If they keep pretending to be deaf, then, we know that they will not follow what we advised. Kahindongdongollona hi kinalik. He pretends to be hearing what I said. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

ka- CV- this prefix combination encodes the tendency to become the characteristic expressed in the root or the tendency to go through a process. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous (frightening) to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. Kapupuhik nan basu. That cup is breakable (easily broken). (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

ka- -inn- mod. 1this circumfix encodes the modal concept of something that can be easily done; facility; describes the state or condition of something that facilitates an action or process. Kadinnaddag tun payung te nalakay nangatang ku. This umbrella is easily destroyed because I bought it for a low price. Kaginnabyon nan luta. That soil can be easily hoed. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2encodes the modal concept of someone who has a tendency toward emotional or physical affects. Kabinnungot hi amana ten nabutong. His father tends to be angry when he is drunk. Kadinnoggoh inana. Her mother tends to be sickly.

ma-₁ sta. this prefix encodes the state or property of a referent. Matukatukal ka an e makitugaltugal te mapat-al ya hilong di puntutugalan yu. You do not sleep at night because your gambling goes on night and day. Madam-ot di hagabin (name), hahaggiyon! “The hagabi-bench of (name of owner is inserted) is heavy, hahaggiyon.” (This is chanted as a cheer at the hagabi ceremony.) Nan matadom an wahey maphod hi pundikhal. The sharp ax is the good one for aplitting wood. Sim: na-; Sim: na-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

ma-₂ pass. this prefix derives the passive form of Class 4 verbal roots; non-past tense. Matbal da mo peman! Now they are highly respected indeed. Adina anhan dongolon di kalin nan inayana an kananay ahida mahmok di imbabale da. He did not heed the protests of his wife who said that their children would be pitied. Pangalim nin kattog di babale nadan udum bon matibo mo bokon ta datuwe nan kalyon an bapor. You think what can be seen are houses but these are what they call ships. Sim: na-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

ma-₃ abl. this prefix encodes an abilitative modality; able to do something. Manomnom kun handi keh kau-unga mi ya wadaday nihag-on kediyen ob-ob hi o-ongal an batu. I can remember that when we were children, there were big rocks beside the same spring. Makeke nan lobong te atappo. The lake can be swam because it is shallow. Magibok nan wadan nah pingngit di wa-el. He could sense that he was by a creek. Sim: maka-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

makaC1- mod. 1this prefix encodes an intensifying modal of a state. <The first consonant of the root is geminated.> Makangnganta din unga. That child loves to sing. Maka-aliy kogak. I was just at the point of crying. (lit. really coming my crying) Hituwen amayyu ya makahammuy This animal is very odorous. Maka-atung ad Manila. It is very hot in Manila. 2this prefix intensifies the state of the subject referent; co-occurs with stative verbs. Makayyam-oy tinapay ni kinapya na. The bread that she makes is very soft. Sim: nakaC1-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 3this prefix intensifies the passive state of Class 4 verbal roots; non-past tense. Maphod di makaddikhal nan itungu te gagala ya mahap-ayan It is good if the firewood is well-split because it will dry quickly.

makaC2- -an mod. this circumfix encodes an intensified passive; non-past tense; cross-references the subject. <The second consonant of the root is geminated.> Kalyok hituwe te ad uwani ya makaawwatan takuy ine-en di pamhod te hidiyey impatibotibon Jesus hi pangi-ena. (1 Juan 2:8b) I say this because now we fully understand the way of love because that is what Jesus continuously revealed by his customary way. Sim: nakaC2- -an. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

maka- -an pass. this circumfix inflects the passive form of Class 5 verbal roots with the meaning that the result of an action will be very satisfactory; intensifier; non-past tense. Makahiggidan nan dot-al. The floor will be well-swept. Sim: naka- -an. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

makai- intensifier. this prefix derives an intensified passive form of Class 3 verbal roots; non-past tense. Mahapul an makaikammo nan binokbok. The yeast must be well-stirred (into the rice). Wadan pidwana ke ya ahi makaipaptok am-in. If it is repeated, everything should be well-planned. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

maki-₁ mod. this prefix encodes a participatory concept; it indicates that the agent subject is participating with others in an action or activity; non-past tense. Tibom bot adika makidkid-um hi fraternities te maid di hilbin dadiye. See to it also that you don’t join any fraternity groups because they are useless. Hinumang inada, “Te ume kayu moh iskul. Maki-e kan manong mu. Their mother answered, “Because you are going to school. You will go with your brother.” Matukatukal ka an e makitugatugal te mapat-al ya hilong di puntutugalan yu. You stay awake to join in gambling because your gambling goes on night and day. Sim: naki-; Sim: maki- -an, naki- -an. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

maki- -an participatory. this circumfix encodes the concept of participation in an action or activity; the object referent is cross-referenced; non-past tense. Paddungnay naatu kan nakibuttikan hi tatagu mu ahi namam-a moy inatum ten makibuttikan kah kakabayu. (Jeremiah 12:5b) It’s like you were tired joining in racing people but you would be more tired if you joined in racing horses. Sim: maki-, naki- -an. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

maN- 1TACR. the prefix encodes a non-past tense and cross-references a topicalized subject-agent; it co-occurs with Classes 4 and 5 verbal roots. <Morphophonology: The N in the form symbolizes a nasal that assimilates to the point of articulation of the first consonant of the root, and then, reduces the consonant. If the first consonant of the root is followed by the ‘o’ vowel, the vowel will also be reduced.> Eda manibo nadan nangipaptok ketuweh udum an makan mu maid. Those in charge tried to look for more food but nothing was left. Himmawwang nadan tatagun e manggop ke dida ot pumpate da dida. The raiding people came out and started to attack them to kill them. Da Juan ke Maira din mange. It’s Juan and Maria who are passing by. Sim: naN-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2asp. the prefix encodes a present continuative aspect; it co-occurs with roots that have an innate punctiliar aspect. Manatong kami nah ohan bale ya namodwongak an nanibo nah ohan lalaki. As we were arriving near one of the houses, I was surprised to see a man. Hay kalyona ya, kediyen hilong an manganamut, an gawan mon di hilong... He explained to us that the night before while he was on his way home at about midnight... (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.)

mangi- top. this prefix cross-references a topicalized agent-subject; co-occurs with Class 3 verbal roots; non-past tense. Mihaad nan hagabi nah dola ta nangamung mo nan kon hagabi an ahi mangip-iphod. The hagabi-bench is placed in the yard and it is up to the owner to have it finished (lit. made-good). Kediyen algon pumbungbungan da ya immali on inhinyeron mangiha-ad hi bungbung. That day when they blasted the rocks, an engineer came to place the dynamite sticks. Sim: nangi-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

mangin- TACR. this prefix encodes a time concept and functions to express that an event or condition will come about without an undue time lapse; quickly; soon. Umala ka nah makakkaphod an alina ta manginkakapya kah tinapay. (Genesis 18:6) Get some fine flour and quickly make bread. Mangin-a-ali kayu ta baddangan dakami. Come quickly to help us. Ot e mangin-a-ala nan tagu nah wahe. (2Kings 6:7) And so that man went and quickly got the ax. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes, 8.4.5 - Relative time.)

mangipa- caus. this prefix encodes a causative agent that is topicalized and cross-referenced; non-past tense. Hay pundallanan ina di mangipaatun hiya. It is mother’s walking that makes her tired. Hanan mittuluy mangipataddog hanadah u-unga. It is the teacher who will have the children stand. Nganney mangipadukke hi buuk? What will make the hair grow long? Sim: nangipa-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

mi- pass. this prefix encodes the passive of Class 3 verbal roots; non-past tense. Hanadan bibiyo ya miha-ad da kanuh liyang, nah buddalan di ob-ob. These bibiyo or pinading accordingly stay or live in caves, near the springs. Da ke Magappid ya miha-ad da nah dommang nan boble. Magappid lived across the valley from their village. Wada da boy tetendaan hitun kay ad Cubao mu nangingina day migattang. There are stores like those in Cubao but what they sell is more expensive. Sim: ni-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

mi- -an pass. this circumfix encodes the non-past passive for Class 3 verbal roots. Idawawa yuy takle yu ta midatan kayu. Reach out your hands and you will be given some. Sim: ni- -an. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

mipa- -an pass. this circumfix has the features of passive, causative, topicalization; non-past tense. Hay am-in nan nitudok nah kalin Apu Dios ya mipaannungan. As for everything that is written in the word of God, it will be fulfilled. Sim: nipa- -an. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

mumpa- caus. 1this prefix encodes a causative agent in the grammatical subject position that is cross-referenced; non-past tense. Kanayun kan mundasal an mumpasalamat kan hiya. Pray always to him, thanking him. Sim: numpa-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2used with any locomotion or directional verb root, giving prominence to the direction of movement. Mumpaabat an mumpaed Tinoc di oha ya mumpatpatikid an mumpaed Madannum ta ad Liwon di oha. This is where three main pathways branch out, one going to Tinoc, and ascending, going toward Madannum and one to Liwon.

mumpa- -an trans. this circumfix encodes a causative agent-subject with the cross-referencing of a site-object; non-past tense. [The site-object is often semantically a recipient or beneficiary of the action encoded in the verb.] Ot mundasalak ke he-at mumpabaddangak, APU. (Psalm 30:8) And so I prayed to you so that you will help me, LORD. Mundongol kayun papatul ya dakayun aap-apu te ikantaak hi APU DIOS an Dios Israel ya mumpagangowak hi pundayaw kun hiya! (Hanadan Huwes 5:3) You kings and you leaders listen because I will sing a song to the Lord God, the God of Israel and I will play music in my honoring of him. Sim: numpa- -an. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)