mumpaN- TACR. this prefix combination functions to encode an action that will affect more than one object; co-occurs with Class 5 transitive verbs; non-past tense. Adida mun-ap-apu tuh luta ya adida mumpangapyah o-ongal an boble. They will not rule this land, and they will not build big cities. muN‑/nuN‑ + paN‑. Sim: numpaN-. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Verb affixes.)
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mumpangi- TACR. this prefix combination functions to encode an action that will affect more than one object; co-occurs with Class 3 transitive verbs; non-past tense. Ot umitud-ak dah mumpangie ke dadiyen tudok hi kabobboble. And they sent them to take that letter to all the cities and villages. Sim: numpangi-. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Verb affixes.)
mumpuN- TACR. this prefix encodes distributive, i.e. there is a plurality of subjects involved in the action, activity, or experience; it cross-references the subject; non-past tense. Waday mumpundogo ke dida. There are many sick among them. Hinanhanan day ngadan am-in nadan mumpungngunuh di. They asked for the names of all who will work there. Sim: numpuN-. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Verb affixes.)
muN- -an TACR. this circumfix encodes the concept of distributing an action or activity over time, space, or participants; non-past tense; cross-references the agent-subject. Ditakun tatagu ya kulugon takun wadaday mundallanan weno muntayyapan an adi matibo. As for us people, we believe that there are unseen beings who are either walking around or flying in the air. Indai ot ya abut mangalin nahho- wa-el, inang ay, waday munhuhummangan. After awhile, he was approaching the creek, oh my, there were voices conversing. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Verb affixes.)
mungki- TACR. this prefix encodes the component that the activity or action is distributed among agent-subjects who participate in the activity or action; non-past tense. Datuwe kan duduplanu ya mungkakalpu da mungkidadawwin boble. These airplanes come from faraway places. Mungkitalu nadan allama ya umipit da hin eda howngon di baleda. The crabs hid and pinched the children’s hands when they reached inside their holes to get them. Sim: nungki-. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Verb affixes.)
na-₁ sta. this prefix co-occurs with stative-process verbal roots and encodes a completive aspect. Nalakan mabutong. It is easy to get drunk. Natukal di tatagu te hay ngalan di munla-un tatagu. The people were sleepless because of the noise of passers-by. Inilak nan ohan iiba taku an kadangyan ni-an mu numbalin hi nawotwot. I know of one of our relatives who was once a very rich man but turned out to be a poor man (because of his gambling). Sim: ma-₁; Sim: ma-₁. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Verb affixes.)
na-₂ pass. this prefix derives the passive form of Class 4 verbal roots; past tense. Kananay “Hoy, nganney naat ke he-a?” He said “Hey, what was done to you?” Maid maptok ya nunhakkubun natu-i. Suddenly, he fell flat as he was pushed over. Adiyak kuma makiinum mu napilitak. I didn’t really want to drink with them but they pressured me (lit. I was forced). Sim: ma-₂. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Verb affixes.)
na- -an pass. this circumfix derives the past tense passive form of Class 5 verbal roots. Indani ya nadatngan hidiyen nagtud an algo. Then, the appointed day came. Impundallan da nan nasugatan. They let the wounded person walk. Natanoman hi kaiw nan bilid. The tree was planted on the mountain. Sim: ma- -an. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Verb affixes.)
nakaC1- mod. this prefix is an intensifying modal affix; past tense. Nakal-ot di bungug nan duplanu ten munda-ul. The plane produces a very loud noise when it is about to land. Adiyak pakah-od ke Talakka te nakakkableyak mon muntattattayun. I couldn’t wait for Talakka because I was so tired from hanging. Deket mo ta nakaggibu ya matibo nan duwan kapkapyan di ulun di nuwang nah numbinnongwa. When it (the bench) is really finished, it looks like a misshapen animal with two carabao heads, one on each end. Sim: makaC1-. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Verb affixes.)
nakaC2- -an TACR. this circumfix encodes an intensified passive; past tense; cross-references the subject; the second C of the root is geminated. Nakatanomman hi balat di boble da. Their place was well-planted with banana trees. Nakahiggidan dah maphod. They swept it very well. Sim: makaC2- -an. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Verb affixes.)
naka- -an intensifier. this circumfix inflects the passive form of Class 5 verbal roots with the meaning that the result of an action is very satisfactory; intensifier; past tense. Nakatanomman hi balat di boble da. Their place was well-planted with bananas. Sim: maka- -an. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Verb affixes.)
nakaiC1- intensifier. the prefix derives an intensified passive form of Class 3 verbal roots; past tense. Hay bangan nakai-ustuy hukap nay maphod an punha-angan hi pihing. A well-covered pot is best for cooking pihing-vegetables. Hinae mo nan kanak nakaihhalla kayu. (Marcos 12:27b) About that, I say you are very mistaken (lit. have missed the mark about that). (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Verb affixes.)
naki- participatory. this prefix encodes the concept of participation in an action or activity; it cross-references the agent-subject; past tense. Hi Mariay nakiali ke ha-on. Maria came with me. Nakiatuwak damdama handih nakingunuwak. I was also tired when I joined in working. Nakitanom hi ama na ke dakami. His father joined in planting with us. Sim: maki-₁. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Verb affixes.)
naki- -an participatory. this circumfix encodes the concept of participation in an action or activity; past tense; cross-references the object referent. Makulug, ina. Tinibo mi. Nakihummangan pay ke dakami, kanak. “It’s true, mother! I saw her. She even talked to us,” I said. Sim: maki-₁, maki- -an. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Verb affixes.)
naN- TACR. this prefix cross-references a topicalized agent-subject; co-occurs with Class 4 verbal roots; past tense. <
> Himmagob, nana-ang ya nunhigup hi bintok. He got water, he cooked and carried rice bundles into shade. Hi manang ya dingngol na damdama ot mundihhan namtik nah panto. As for my older brother, he heard it too and ran to the door at the same time. Hiyay nangalah kadukkayan kawayan. He is the one who got the longest bamboo. Takon nadan enungkanta ya nanayo ya uggeda nangan. Even those who participated in the songs and dances did not (eat). Mun-an-anlah inadan nangngol an dakol di inadal da. Their mother was happy to hear that they had learned so much. Sim: maN-. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Verb affixes.) Morphophonology: The final nasal of the prefix assimilates to the first consonant of the root, and then, reduces the consonant; if the vowel o follows the root consonant, the vowel will also be reduced.
nangi- top. this prefix encodes and cross-references a topicalized agent-subject; co-occurs with Class 3 verb roots; past tense. Nagibbuy programa ot waday nangitkuk hi daanay epangenan di tatagu. After the program, someone shouted out the places where the different groups will take their lunch. Abunay hukik an nangipakkid nah adol di kaiw, mu ongnga-ongngal ot muntattayunak nah hapang. It was only my legs that held on around the trunk of the tree; but it was big so I had to hang from a branch. Sim: mangi-. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Verb affixes.)
nangi- -an TACR. this circumfix topicalizes and cross-references a time or place; co-occurs with Class 3 verbal roots; past tense. Tibom di nangiha-adan na nah basket. Find where she placed the basket. Hay nangidongolana ya hi nangappit nah payoh kawad-an di ob-ob. What he heard was in the direction of the ricefield near the spring. Sim: pangi- -an₁. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Verb affixes.)
nangipa- top. this prefix encodes a topicalized causative agent; the causative agent is cross-referenced; past tense. Hanan taguy nangipadikhal. That man is the one who had the wood split. Hi Mariay nangipaen hiyah iskul. It is Maria who sent him to school. Sim: mangipa-. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Verb affixes.)
nangipa- -an₂ top. this circumfix encodes past tense and cross-references the topicalized agent-subject in a causative topicalization construction. <
> Dahdiy nangipadngolana? Whom did he let hear it? Hi inay nangipatanomanah bulhe. My mother was the one that he had plant beans. Hi Pedroy nangipagaudana. Pedro was the one that he had spade. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Verb affixes.) The agent doing the work is highlighted by syntactic fronting, i.e. placed in the pre-verb position and is cross-referenced by the circumfix.
ni- 1pass. this prefix is the passive form for Class 3 verbal roots; past tense. Dakol di inggampa dan nibangngad mu hay kapkaphodan ke Bugan ya nan gawgawa. They had many gifts in a basket that they returned home with but the very best for Bugan was the duck. Nate moh apu Casilda ya maid moy oggan mangialih allaman nibayuh puhu. After Grandmother Casilda died, there was no one to bring crabs pounded with banana blossoms. Sim: mi-. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Verb affixes.) 2mod. functions to encode non-volitionality.