klase 1comm. a classification of items; kinds; types; classes. Dakol di klasen di bulwati. There are many kinds of clothes. (sem. domains: 8.3.5 - Type, kind.) 2sta. to be different classes of an object. Naklaseklase di indat dan agana. They gave him different kinds of medicines. na‑ CV(C)CV‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: clase.
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kodo 1to ask. 1.1trans. to ask for something; to beg. Kodowon yu nan adida usalon. Ask for the things they will not use. Hituwey kindok ke Paning. This is what I begged from Paning. ‑on/‑in‑. Sim: bag’a, pakada. (sem. domains: 3.3.2 - Request, 220.127.116.11 - Ask.) 1.2trans. refers to repeated begging, on more than one occasion. Adi kayu e kumodokodoh kanon yu te nal-ot pay di adol yu. Don’t be repeatedly begging for food because your body is still strong. Adi ka kumodokodo. Don’t get into the habit of begging. ‑um‑/‑imm‑ CV(C)CV. 1.3trans. this form highlights the person from whom something is being asked. Nungkodoham tuh intanom mun mangga? From whom did you ask for this mango which you planted. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. 2sta. to be a beggar; refers to someone who is always asking/begging for something. Nakdo hi Juan te wada key tinibo nan on kumdo. Juan is a beggar because he asks for everything he sees. ma‑/na‑.
kotol 1sta. to feel cold; to become cold. Maktolak. I feel cold. Kinumtol handi mungkabigat. It became cold at dawn. ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: tuning. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Cold.) 2adj. superlative of cold; coldest. Hay kakotkotolan na hilong ya nah gawan di hilong. The coldest time of the night is midnight. ka‑ ‑an CVC‑. Qualifier. comp. ahikotolan
kulab’ut 1comm. cloud. Ahi umalih Jesus hi udum hi algo an mid-um hi kulabut. One day Jesus will come amidst the clouds. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Cloud.) 2intrans. to be cloudy. Mungkukulabut kinali wada bo nin di nal-ot an udan. It is cloudy that is why there might be a strong rain again. muN‑/nuN‑ CV.
kullawing intrans. to swing with hands on a pole or branch; to hang from something. Wada da nan munhona ta kanan di bumaddang da yaden mungkulkullawing da ot ya abu ta mid-um di dam-ot da. There are some naughty ones who say they will help but instead they swing on the poles and add to the load. muN‑/nuN‑ CV(C)‑. 1B Movement with a directional component. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Move back and forth.)
kulut trans. to curl hair. Pinhod kun kuluton di buuk yu mu maid nan pungkulut ku. I would like to curl your hair but I do not have my things for curling. Mahlun mungkulut ke dakayu. She is industrious to curl your hair. Duway oras yaden adi makmakullut tun buuk ku. Two hours passed and yet my hair was not curling. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ma‑ CV(C). 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 2.1.5 - Hair.) Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.
lingot 1comm. the fluid excreted by the sweat glands; sweat; perspiration. Natinah lingot na te indallan na. He is soaked with his perspiration because he hiked. Idat kah pundan-ik tuh lingot ku. Give me something to wipe my perspiration. 2to perspire. 2.1intrans. to excrete fluid from the sweat glands through the pores of skin; to perspire; to sweat. Munlilingotak. I am perspiring. Umboy biggatna ya munlilingot ka. Even in the morning, you perspire. Ahi lumingot. He will sweat. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 2E Body/Physiological functions. (sem. domains: 2.2.6 - Sweat.) 2.2intrans. to perspire continuously. Maatung ke on lumingolingotak. When it’s hot, I keep on perspiring. ‑um‑ CV(C)CV‑. id. kay gagahhilang di lingot mu id. lingot di puunnan say. Maid nomnomon hi naatuwam te hin uggem inlingotan. say. maphod di kakan ten nunlingotan
ma-al-algo (der. of algo₂) sta. 1the time when the sun is highest in the sky; noontime. Etaku mangan te ma-al-algo. Lets go eat because it’s noontime. ma‑, CVC‑. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52.3 - Time of the day.) 2refers to the time when the sun has moved past its peak; past noontime. Na-al-algo mo yaden maid pay an umali. It’s past noon and yet, he hasn’t come. na‑ CVC‑.
ma-ma-idan (der. of maid) exispred. intensified negated existential predicate; there is none, not any. Deket kaspangarigan ta waday makahhapul mu ya ma-ma-idan di pihhum ya umanamut ka. Now, just in case you have an urgent need and you don’t have any money, you return home. Naminghan ya maka-al-algo bon ma-ma-idan tataguh kalata. Once, it was noontime and there was not a single person on the road. CVC‑ ‑an.
ma-uwan 1trans. to become aware suddenly; to get one’s bearings; realize suddenly. Ek imama-uwan ya deyak nah bilid. All at once I became aware that I was in the mountains. Indani ya ena imama-uwan ya maid mo nadan e nangikuyug ke hiya, an wada nin an alas kuwatro mon diye. Then, at about 4:00 a.m. he suddenly noticed that he was left alone by his abductors. i‑ CV‑. (sem. domains: 3.2.4 - Understand.) 2v. to pay close attention; watch carefully; to be alert. Ma-uwam hin mala-u da nadan tindalu. Pay close attention if the soldiers pass-by. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Imprison.)
maal-algo (der. of algo₁) sta. noon; midday. Deket maal-algo ya em ihap-e nan page ta mamag-anan. At noontime, spread the palay so that it will dry. Dimmatong dah maal-algo ot ipayu dan e mampap mu tultulluy dimpap da. They arrived at noon and went directly to the river to catch crabs, but they only caught a few. Tuwe da te mungkamal-algo. Here they come because it is almost noon. ma‑ CVC‑. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11.3 - Time of the day.)
1this prefix encodes non-past tense, durative time aspect; it cross-references the subject and is the default affix for Class 1 verbal roots. < . TACR > Mungngahngahak yaden mungkaliyak hi bale mi. I gasped for breath and yet I shouted at our house. Itikod mun muntugal an ap-apuk. Stop gambling, grandson. An mun-in-inop ka? Inid-onah nunhina-ob an pukol ku. “Are you dreaming?” She held me by my shoulders. 2non-past tense, signals a durative aspect activity rather than a punctiliar action when co-occuring with a transitive verbal root, cross-references subject. Dakol kami an naamung nah plaza an munhood kamih lugan. Many of us gathered at the plaza to wait for a ride. Ta mundadaan dah ibaddang dan hiya. So that they will prepare whatever they will give to help. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. 3when the prefix co-occurs with the reduplicant CV(C)-, it encodes non-past tense, durative-continuative aspect and cross-references the subject. Deket palhu di pangiha-angam, mahapul an uggan mu ikiwa ta mun-iingngoy lutu na. If a skillet is used, it is necessary to stir the rice from time to time so that it will be cooked evenly. Mumpaypaytuk ya mungkuli. She was jumping up and down and screaming. 4when this affix co-occurs with Class 6 verb roots, it changes statives to durative processes; it encodes non-past tense and cross-references the subject. Mihmihdi nah munhihilong ya nah kakaiw an dakol di hapang nan mahdol di tubuna. It stays in dark places (becoming dark) or in trees with thick, leafy branches. Deket dakol di binokbok na ya mapul-ukan an mumpait. When too much binokbok-yeast is used, the wine will become bitter. 5the prefix derives verbs from nouns; it encodes non-past tense and cross-references the subject. Ya pinhod ot Mayor ya dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo. What the Mayor wanted was that many women would wear the Ifugao skirt. Mumboga da ya mungkail da. They prepare rice and make wine. Adina itikod an mumbaki te wadanwaday takut na an kumpulmin tiempu ya mate. He does not stop doing the rituals because his fear is that he might die at anytime. 6the prefix encodes non-past tense, reflexive and cross-references both the subject and object expressed in a single noun phrase. Mahapul an mamitlu kan mun-amo ohan algo. You have to take a bath three times a day (bathe yourself). Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid themselves outside of the camp. Morphophonology: The velar consonant in coda position assimilates to the point of articulation of the first consonant in the root.