mumpuN- TACR. this prefix encodes distributive, i.e. there is a plurality of subjects involved in the action, activity, or experience; it cross-references the subject; non-past tense. Waday mumpundogo ke dida. There are many sick among them. Hinanhanan day ngadan am-in nadan mumpungngunuh di. They asked for the names of all who will work there. Sim: numpuN-. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Verb affixes.)
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1this prefix encodes non-past tense, durative time aspect; it cross-references the subject and is the default affix for Class 1 verbal roots. < . TACR > Mungngahngahak yaden mungkaliyak hi bale mi. I gasped for breath and yet I shouted at our house. Itikod mun muntugal an ap-apuk. Stop gambling, grandson. An mun-in-inop ka? Inid-onah nunhina-ob an pukol ku. “Are you dreaming?” She held me by my shoulders. 2non-past tense, signals a durative aspect activity rather than a punctiliar action when co-occuring with a transitive verbal root, cross-references subject. Dakol kami an naamung nah plaza an munhood kamih lugan. Many of us gathered at the plaza to wait for a ride. Ta mundadaan dah ibaddang dan hiya. So that they will prepare whatever they will give to help. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. 3when the prefix co-occurs with the reduplicant CV(C)-, it encodes non-past tense, durative-continuative aspect and cross-references the subject. Deket palhu di pangiha-angam, mahapul an uggan mu ikiwa ta mun-iingngoy lutu na. If a skillet is used, it is necessary to stir the rice from time to time so that it will be cooked evenly. Mumpaypaytuk ya mungkuli. She was jumping up and down and screaming. 4when this affix co-occurs with Class 6 verb roots, it changes statives to durative processes; it encodes non-past tense and cross-references the subject. Mihmihdi nah munhihilong ya nah kakaiw an dakol di hapang nan mahdol di tubuna. It stays in dark places (becoming dark) or in trees with thick, leafy branches. Deket dakol di binokbok na ya mapul-ukan an mumpait. When too much binokbok-yeast is used, the wine will become bitter. 5the prefix derives verbs from nouns; it encodes non-past tense and cross-references the subject. Ya pinhod ot Mayor ya dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo. What the Mayor wanted was that many women would wear the Ifugao skirt. Mumboga da ya mungkail da. They prepare rice and make wine. Adina itikod an mumbaki te wadanwaday takut na an kumpulmin tiempu ya mate. He does not stop doing the rituals because his fear is that he might die at anytime. 6the prefix encodes non-past tense, reflexive and cross-references both the subject and object expressed in a single noun phrase. Mahapul an mamitlu kan mun-amo ohan algo. You have to take a bath three times a day (bathe yourself). Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid themselves outside of the camp. Morphophonology: The velar consonant in coda position assimilates to the point of articulation of the first consonant in the root.
na-ala (sp. var. naala) advpred. 1without any reason; no other requirement; simply. Na-ala ya dinuntukak. Without any reason he hit me. Na-ala ot ikamom nan asukar nah arina ot iha-ang mu. Just mix the sugar with the flour and then cook it. Manner. Sim: bigla, maid maptok, hingkatang, maag. 2refers to an action or happening that is unexpected; suddenly. Na-ala ya inhawwang nah tu. Suddenly he showed himself here.
nam’olwang intrans. to have a miscarriage. Adi lumah-un te namolwang ad nakugab. She will not come out because she had a miscarriage yesterday.
nungka- proc. this prefix encodes the distribution of a process or state over a number of objects; completive aspect. <
> Nungkakaten mumbaga ya maid di innunan mumbaki ta iappitana dida. Someone who is dead might ask for something (be in need), then, he has no way of offering to them. Naminghan ya immanamut hi ohan biggatna ya nungkabibik-iy bulwatina. One morning he came home with his clothes torn in several places. Ya nada ke bon kakaiw an sycamore an nungkalngo ya hannotan takuh sedar an kapkaphodan an kaiw. And also as for those sycamore trees that were felled, we will replace them with sedar which is the best tree. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Verb affixes.) This prefix generally co-occurs with process-state verbal roots or with passive forms of active verbs.
odon₁ comm. valuable possessions; inheritance. Ha-oy di namoltan hi odon Ama. I inherited the valuable possessions of my father. Inggatang nay payo da ya odon da ta hay ahan itugal na. He sold their ricefields and heirlooms just to have money with which to gamble. Sim: tawid, boltan. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Value, 220.127.116.11 - Own, possess.)
ongal (fr. var. ongag) 1adj. describes something which is large in size; big. Eta tuwali madlig on mahapul an mitakke ta kinali ongal di umeh pulit. Every time you move you have to ride, that is why a big amount goes for fare. Ongal di matanan nakappaldang hi angana. It has big, round eyes that are close together on its face. (refers to an owl) Inwalakana hanan lata ot ikawot na hanah ongal an batu. She let go of the can and held on to a big stone. Size quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.2 - Big.) 2become large in size. 2.1proc. refers to the process of becoming larger in size. Umongal nan manuk hin panganom hin mumpitluh ohan algo. The chicken will become big if you feed it three times a day. Mungkaongal ka. You are becoming big. Immongal ka mo gayam ya timmag-e ka pay. You have become big now and you are tall, too. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, mungka‑. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Become, change state.) 2.2sta. to be large in size. Naongal nan ek intanom. My plants grew big. Naongal nan bale da. Their house is big. Mangan ka ta maongal ka. You eat so you’ll grow big. ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 8.2 - Big, 8.2.1 - Small.) 2.3trans. to cause to become big. Iongal na nan inumonan gattak. It will become big because of the milk it is drinking. i‑/iN‑. ongngal der. mangong-ongal der. ong-ongal der. ongnga-ongngal n. ph. ongal di bulan
ota 1comm. the unhusked rice grains mixed with the husked rice. Dakol di otan nan binayu da. The rice they pounded has many unhusked grains. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to remove unhusked rice grains. Otaan yu nan boga ta ahiyu ihaang. Remove the unhusked rice grains before cooking it. Pun-otaan yu nan nambayu. Remove the unhusked rice grains. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3comm. (fig) refers to someone who is different from others within a group. Kay otan nikamkamo nadah tatagu. He was so prominent (lit. very different) mixed there with people. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124.3 - Different.) id. kay ota
palang 1comm. a wound from a bolo. Ongal nan palang nah odog na. The wound on his back is big. (sem. domains: 2.5.3 - Injure.) 2trans. to cut by striking with a bolo. Palangom nan hapang di akasya te umalih tuh atop di tubuna. Cut the branch of the acacia-tree because the leaves come to the roof. Mumpalang dah kawayan handi mala-u kami. They were cutting bamboo when we passed by. Pinalang Ramon nan kaiw. Ramon struck the tree with his bolo. Mapalang di taklem hin athina di pangdon mu nah otak. Your hand will be cut if you hold the bolo that way. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑ muN‑/nuN‑, ma‑/na‑. Tactile - Touch contact. 3rec. to wound or kill each other with bolos. Mumpinnallang da lummu nah koltog di luta. They will kill each other with bolos because of a land dispute. muN‑ ‑in‑/nuN‑ ‑in‑. 4v. to attack with a bolo, usually with intent to kill. Etaku tedeyan tuwe nan mun-angon pumalang. Let us go because the crazy man will cut us with his bolo. ‑um‑/imm‑.
palut trans. to mix a liquid with powder as in baking, making dough; to mix water with powdered rice for making rice cakes. Palutom nan binakle hi liting. Mix the powdered rice with the water. Mumpalut dah binakle. They are mixing the powdered rice with water. Ingkamo da nan asukal nah liting ne ahida bo impalut nah binakle. They mixed the sugar with the water then mixed it again with the powdered rice. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑.
pikug trans. to make a hollow or depression; to deform something made of metal or plastic; dent, e.g. plastic bottle, tin can, aluminum, etc. Adim pikugon nan lata te miatop. Do not deform the tin because it will be used for roofing. Damana pay an usalon nan napikug an lata. You can still use the tin can that is deformed. Hinaey kapikpikugan mu nan udum an lata. That one was the most deformed among all the other cans. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.)
pol-ag 1comm. the stick used to beat a gong; made of hardwood like molave or yakal for a strong sound. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Musical instrument.) 2trans. to beat gong. Pol-agon yu nan gangha. Beat the gong. Dakayuy mamol-ag ta ha-oy di mambab. You be the ones to beat the gongs with sticks and I will be the one to beat with my hands. ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑/naN‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: hib-at. infl. pamol-ag
poltan 1comm. rooster. Timmalan-u nan poltan dih mungkabigat. The rooster crowed early this morning. Inulonay dutdut na, inagtunay lamona. (poltan) It uses feathers for a blanket, and carries meat on its head. (rooster)(riddle) Syn: kawitan. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Bird.) 2intrans. to use a rooster for breeding purposes. Bumanowak hi pumpoltan ku te tuwen umitlug nadan manuk ku. I will borrow a rooster for breeding purposes because my hens are about to lay eggs. puN‑.
ta hidiye nan conj. therefore; for that reason. <
> Ta hidiye nan lebbengnan munpasalamat dan APU DIOS gapuh ongal pamhod na ya gapun dakol hanadah umipamodwong an inatnan kiphodan da. (Psalm 107:15) Therefore, it is right that they thank God for his great love and for those many miracles he did for them. This is a phrase consisting of a conjunction, ta , a demonstrative, hidiye and a determiner, nan . It functions as a logical conjunction that connects the following sentence with the sentence that precedes it in context.
talam 1sta. to be cunning or deceitful; to be tricky. Natalam ka. You are deceitful. Nuntalam ot bumtik hi kalabutan. He was cunning and escaped from prison. na‑, muN‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Deceive.) 2trans. to trick or deceive someone. Adiyu talamon te gaga-iho hidiye. Don’t deceive him because that is bad. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact.
tamtam 1trans. to taste something. Tamtamam ya- tun inha-ang ku. Please taste this that I have cooked. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented sites. spec: lan-u. (sem. domains: 2.3.3 - Taste.) 2pass. for something to have a strong taste. Makattamtam nan ingkamom an Vetsin. The MSG that you mixed with it has a strong taste. makaC‑. 3sta. to be tasty; to have a good taste. Matamtam di ulha an ihda. Wild pig viand is tasty. ma‑. Sim: hangliw. 4trans. to taste, an extended meaning refers to tasting something abstract, e.g. trouble, strength of an antagonist. “Otto- anno tinamtam muy kodhol Lammooy? An makulug an hi Lammooy? Then, er...so did you taste the strength of Lammooy? Is it true that it was Lammooy?” ‑on/‑in‑. 5C Goal-oriented site. der. matamtam
taya₁ trans. to collect liquid by placing a container under outlet. Tayaom nan muntodtod an danum. Collect this dripping water in a container. Itayam tun palanggana nah gulipu ta ulahak tun duyu. Put this basin under the water pipe and I will wash the dishes. Muntaya kah pun-amom. Collect water for your bath. Tumaya kah inumon taku. Collect some water for our drinking needs. Mitaya ka nah gulipu. Put yourself under the pipe. (lit. collect the water on your body, regarding bathing) ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, mi‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.5.1 - Gather.) id. mitaya ka
tolgan (infl. of tolog) trans. to light a lamp or fire. Andani ya kananay deket mun-amo da, ad uwanin kotol ya tinolgan dah diyet ta paatungona nan dibdib. After a while he said that when they take a bath, now that’s it’s cold, they light it so that it can warm the air. general: This example sentence is excerpted from a text about a kerosene heater. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 5.5 - Fire.)
tudde 1comm. a chute for water; a water spout or conduit, usually made of bamboo, a banana stalk or leaves. Waday tudde nah pingngit nan ongal an batu. There is a water chute at the side of the large stone. Mapmaphod an mun-amon nah tudde. It’s nice to bathe under the water chute. (sem. domains: 6.7 - Tool.) 2trans. to place a water chute. Tuddeyon yu nan liting na malpun nah guhing ta waday uggan taku pun-amhan Place a water chute on the rice dike outlet so that we will have a place to take a bath. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object.
tukyang comm. a frog species, very small; cannot really jump making it a snake’s favorite dish. Kinan nan ulog nan tukyang kinali waday mun-itit nah makape. The snake ate the tukyang-frog that is why there is a hissing sound among the coffee plants. Sim: tukak, kuty’ang. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Amphibian.)