The basic grammatical information for verbs has been included following the part of speech. (For a detailed description of verb affixation see Yakan Grammar 3.2 Verbs, 7 Verb classes, and 8 Verbal morphology.) Verbs function as predicates of verbal clauses and frequently (but not always) take affixes that cross-reference the absolutive NP of a clause. S stands for subject and O for object.
Whenever a particular verb takes the mag-, N-, or pa- affix to signal agreement with the subject (S) of a clause the occurring affixes are listed. If, for example, for a certain root the mag- affix requires a plural subject or object, (pl.) is written following the affix. If the action is repetitive, (repet.) is written, etc.
Affixes that signal aspect (such as ta-, maka-, -um-, etc.) and can occur on every root in the appropriate verb category have only been included when they are the most frequently occurring ones with a certain root.
Those verbs that normally occur unaffixed have no affixes listed. Also affixes that can occur with all verbs in the appropriate type of sentence as e.g. -in- (in transitive constructions) and -un (imperative) have not been listed.
If verbs require the suffix -an in transitive sentences, -an is listed following the capital O (for object).
Affixes Cew- and kum‘-/kumeN-
Two other affixes need a brief explanation. They are relatively infrequent and occur with restricted sets of verbs, especially - but not exclusively - with those describing various ways of falling and those expressing sounds.
Both affixes convey a sense of frequency of the action and/or many items being affected in the same way. They are listed with the roots with which they occur.
Cew- stands for <Consonant plus ew->, that is, the first consonant of the root equals the consonant of the affix.
hebba topple hewhebba often toppling
labo fall lewlabo often falling
saget mix sewsaget many items mixed
Kum‘-/kum¦-/kumeN- are variations of each other. The kumeN- form occurs only with a few verbs.
kanat scatter kumengkanat many things scattered
powang have holes kumempowang have many holes